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      Epizootic and zoonotic helminths of the bobcat ( Lynx rufus) in Illinois and a comparison of its helminth component communities across the American Midwest

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          Abstract

          A total of 6257 helminths of 19 taxa were recovered from the digestive tract and lungs of 67 bobcats in Illinois. Infections caused by Alaria mustelae, Diphyllobothrium latum, and Macracanthorhynchus ingens are reported for the first time in bobcats. From all the taxa recovered, only three species occurred in high prevalence and caused intense infections: Taenia rileyi, Alaria marcianae, and Toxocara cati, with prevalence and mean intensity of 70% and 6; 42% and 193, and 25% and 14 individuals, respectively. Prevalence lower than 15% of 14 helminth species suggests bobcats are not continuously exposed to infective stages of a single parasite, and may be exposed to a large variety of generalists during their lifespan. No significant difference in parasite species according to host sex or age was detected, except for Diphyllobothrium spp., which were found more frequently in females and in trapped bobcats, and the hookworm, Ancylostoma caninum, which infected juveniles more frequently. Average species richness per infracommunity was 2.4 (±1.2), and the parasite component community showed low qualitative similarity with neighbor communities. The taxa A. caninum, Alaria spp., Diphyllobothrium spp., Paragonimus kellicotti, and T. cati are etiological agents of epizootic and zoonotic diseases.

          Translated abstract

          Un total de 6257 helminthes de 19 taxa ont été collectés de l’appareil digestif et des poumons de 67 lynx roux dans l’Illinois. Les infections causées par Alaria mustelae, Diphyllobothrium latum et Macracanthorhynchus ingens sont rapportées pour la première fois chez les lynx roux. De tous les taxa collectés, seules trois espèces présentaient une prévalence importante et causaient des infections intenses : Taenia rileyi, Alaria marcianae et Toxocara cati, avec des prévalences et intensités moyennes de respectivement 70 % et 6 individus, 42 % et 193 et 25 % et 14. Les prévalences inférieures à 15 % de 14 espèces d’helminthes suggèrent que les lynx roux ne sont pas exposés en permanence aux stades infectieux d’un parasite unique, et peuvent être exposés à une grande variété de généralistes au cours de leur vie. Aucune différence significative dans les espèces de parasites selon sexe et l’âge n’a été détectée, sauf pour Diphyllobothrium spp., qui a été trouvé plus fréquemment chez les femelles et chez les lynx piégés, et l’ankylostome Ancylostoma caninum, qui infectait plus souvent les juvéniles. La richesse en espèces moyenne par infracommunauté était de 2.4 (±1.2), et la communauté des parasites a montré une faible similarité qualitative avec les communautés voisines. Les taxa A. caninum, Alaria spp., Diphyllobothrium spp., Paragonimus kellicotti et T. cati sont des agents étiologiques de maladies épizootiques et de zoonoses.

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          Most cited references 24

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          Human population: the next half century.

           Paula Cohen (2003)
          By 2050, the human population will probably be larger by 2 to 4 billion people, more slowly growing (declining in the more developed regions), more urban, especially in less developed regions, and older than in the 20th century. Two major demographic uncertainties in the next 50 years concern international migration and the structure of families. Economies, nonhuman environments, and cultures (including values, religions, and politics) strongly influence demographic changes. Hence, human choices, individual and collective, will have demographic effects, intentional or otherwise.
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            The role of companion animals in the emergence of parasitic zoonoses.

            Pets offer individuals and the community significant benefits, however cognisance must be taken of the potential for transmission of infectious agents from these animals to humans. The prevalence of many parasites, such as Giardia and Cryptosporidium, has increased over the past few decades while others, such as Toxocara and Ancylostoma, have decreased. These changes could be real, associated with the ready availability of efficacious anthelmintic products or could be artificial due to the type of surveys conducted, the animals surveyed and the diagnostic tests used. Immunocompromised people, in particular, must be aware of the potential risk of acquiring parasitic infections from their pets. However, with the adoption of good hygiene and a thorough knowledge of the transmission of these parasites, immunocompromised people should be able to continue to enjoy the significant benefits of pet ownership. As many owners are not aware of the zoonotic parasites that could be carried by their pets or their mode of transmission, it is concluded that veterinarians need to play a greater role in the education of their clients.
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              Toxocara cati: an underestimated zoonotic agent.

               Maggie Fisher (2003)
              The role of Toxocara cati as a zoonosis is reviewed. It is suggested that, despite case histories of human infection in the literature, historical factors have led to T. cati being under-recognized as a zoonosis, particularly when compared with the prominence given to Toxocara canis in dogs. Differentiation of the two infections remains challenging even today. It is recommended that further work be conducted to facilitate differentiation so that the importance of T. cati as a zoonosis can be clearly defined.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Parasite
                Parasite
                parasite
                Parasite
                EDP Sciences
                1252-607X
                1776-1042
                2014
                14 February 2014
                : 21
                : ( publisher-idID: parasite/2014/01 )
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Department of Zoology, Southern Illinois University Carbondale Illinois 62901-6501 USA
                [2 ] Cooperative Wildlife Research Laboratory, Southern Illinois University Carbondale Illinois 62901 USA
                [3 ] Department of Forestry and Center for Ecology, Southern Illinois University Carbondale Illinois 62901-4619 USA
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author: agustinjz@ 123456zoology.siu.edu
                Article
                parasite130092 10.1051/parasite/2014005
                10.1051/parasite/2014005
                3923260
                24521984
                © S.J. Hiestand et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2014
                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 2, Equations: 0, References: 74, Pages: 9
                Categories
                Research Article

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