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      The RIFLE and AKIN classifications for acute kidney injury: a critical and comprehensive review

      ,

      Clinical Kidney Journal

      Oxford University Press

      acute kidney injury, AKIN, RIFLE

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          Abstract

          In May 2004, a new classification, the RIFLE (Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss of kidney function, and End-stage kidney disease) classification, was proposed in order to define and stratify the severity of acute kidney injury (AKI). This system relies on changes in the serum creatinine (SCr) or glomerular filtration rates and/or urine output, and it has been largely demonstrated that the RIFLE criteria allows the identification of a significant proportion of AKI patients hospitalized in numerous settings, enables monitoring of AKI severity, and is a good predictor of patient outcome. Three years later (March 2007), the Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) classification, a modified version of the RIFLE, was released in order to increase the sensitivity and specificity of AKI diagnosis. Until now, the benefit of these modifications for clinical practice has not been clearly demonstrated.

          Here we provide a critical and comprehensive discussion of the two classifications for AKI, focusing on the main differences, advantages and limitations.

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          Most cited references 51

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          Acute kidney injury, mortality, length of stay, and costs in hospitalized patients.

          The marginal effects of acute kidney injury on in-hospital mortality, length of stay (LOS), and costs have not been well described. A consecutive sample of 19,982 adults who were admitted to an urban academic medical center, including 9210 who had two or more serum creatinine (SCr) determinations, was evaluated. The presence and degree of acute kidney injury were assessed using absolute and relative increases from baseline to peak SCr concentration during hospitalization. Large increases in SCr concentration were relatively rare (e.g., >or=2.0 mg/dl in 105 [1%] patients), whereas more modest increases in SCr were common (e.g., >or=0.5 mg/dl in 1237 [13%] patients). Modest changes in SCr were significantly associated with mortality, LOS, and costs, even after adjustment for age, gender, admission International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification diagnosis, severity of illness (diagnosis-related group weight), and chronic kidney disease. For example, an increase in SCr >or=0.5 mg/dl was associated with a 6.5-fold (95% confidence interval 5.0 to 8.5) increase in the odds of death, a 3.5-d increase in LOS, and nearly 7500 dollars in excess hospital costs. Acute kidney injury is associated with significantly increased mortality, LOS, and costs across a broad spectrum of conditions. Moreover, outcomes are related directly to the severity of acute kidney injury, whether characterized by nominal or percentage changes in serum creatinine.
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            Minimal changes of serum creatinine predict prognosis in patients after cardiothoracic surgery: a prospective cohort study.

            Acute renal failure increases risk of death after cardiac surgery. However, it is not known whether more subtle changes in renal function might have an impact on outcome. Thus, the association between small serum creatinine changes after surgery and mortality, independent of other established perioperative risk indicators, was analyzed. In a prospective cohort study in 4118 patients who underwent cardiac and thoracic aortic surgery, the effect of changes in serum creatinine within 48 h postoperatively on 30-d mortality was analyzed. Cox regression was used to correct for various established demographic preoperative risk indicators, intraoperative parameters, and postoperative complications. In the 2441 patients in whom serum creatinine decreased, early mortality was 2.6% in contrast to 8.9% in patients with increased postoperative serum creatinine values. Patients with large decreases (DeltaCrea or =0.5 mg/dl. For all groups, increases in mortality remained significant in multivariate analyses, including postoperative renal replacement therapy. After cardiac and thoracic aortic surgery, 30-d mortality was lowest in patients with a slight postoperative decrease in serum creatinine. Any even minimal increase or profound decrease of serum creatinine was associated with a substantial decrease in survival.
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              An assessment of the RIFLE criteria for acute renal failure in hospitalized patients.

              The Acute Dialysis Quality Initiative (ADQI) Group published a consensus definition (the RIFLE criteria) for acute renal failure. We sought to assess the ability of the RIFLE criteria to predict mortality in hospital patients. Retrospective single-center study. University-affiliated hospital. All patients admitted to the study hospital between January 2000 and December 2002. Patients were excluded if they were younger than 15 yrs old, were on chronic dialysis, or had kidney transplant or if their length of hospital stay was <24 hrs. None. We included 20,126 patients. Mean age was 64 yrs, 14.7% of patients required intensive care unit admission, and hospital mortality was 8.0%. According to the RIFLE criteria, 9.1% of all patients were in the Risk category for acute renal failure, 5.2% were in the Injury category, and 3.7% were in the Failure category. There was an almost linear increase in hospital mortality from Normal to Failure (Normal, 4.4%; Risk, 15.1%; Injury, 29.2%; and Failure, 41.1%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that all RIFLE criteria were significantly predictive factors for hospital mortality, with an almost linear increase in odds ratios from Risk to Failure (odds ratios, Risk 2.5, Injury 5.4, Failure 10.1). The RIFLE criteria for acute renal failure classified close to 20% of our study patients as having some degrees of acute impairment in renal function and were useful in predicting their hospital mortality.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Clin Kidney J
                Clin Kidney J
                ckj
                ndtplus
                Clinical Kidney Journal
                Oxford University Press
                2048-8505
                2048-8513
                February 2013
                1 January 2012
                1 January 2012
                : 6
                : 1
                : 8-14
                Affiliations
                Department of Nephrology and Renal Transplantation, Hospital de Santa Maria, Centro Hospitalar de Lisboa Norte , EPE , Lisboa, Portugal
                Author notes
                Correspondence and offprint requests to: José António Lopes; E-mail: jalopes93@ 123456hotmail.com
                Article
                sfs160
                10.1093/ckj/sfs160
                5094385
                © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

                this is an open access article distributed under the terms of the creative commons attribution non-commercial license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. for commercial re-use, please contact journals.permissions@oup.com

                Page count
                Pages: 7
                Product
                Categories
                Original Contributions
                in-Depth Review

                Nephrology

                rifle, akin, acute kidney injury

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