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      The lncRNA BDNF-AS is an epigenetic regulator in the human amygdala in early onset alcohol use disorders

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          Abstract

          Adolescent alcohol drinking is known to contribute to the development and severity of alcohol use disorders (AUDs) later in adulthood. Recent studies have shown that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are critical for brain development and synaptic plasticity. One such lncRNA is natural occurring brain-derived neurotrophic factor antisense ( BDNF-AS) that has been shown to regulate BDNF expression. The role of BDNF-AS lncRNA in the molecular mechanisms of AUD is unknown. Here, we evaluated the expression and functional role of BDNF-AS in postmortem amygdala of either early onset or late onset alcoholics (individuals who began drinking before or after 21 years of age, respectively) and age-matched control subjects. BDNF-AS expression is increased in early onset but not in late onset AUD amygdala and appears to be regulated epitranscriptomically via decreased N6-methyladenosine on BDNF-AS. Upregulation of BDNF-AS is associated with a significant decrease in BDNF expression and increased recruitment of EZH2, which deposits repressive H3K27 trimethylation (H3K27me3) at regulatory regions in the BDNF gene in the early onset AUD group. Drinking during adolescence also contributed to significant decreases in activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (ARC) expression which also appeared to be mediated by increased EZH2 deposition of repressive H3K27me3 at the ARC synaptic activity response element. These results suggest an important role for BDNF-AS in the regulation of synaptic plasticity via epigenetic reprogramming in the amygdala of AUD subjects who began drinking during adolescence.

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          Most cited references 28

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          Protocol for the fast chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) method.

          Chromatin and transcriptional processes are among the most intensively studied fields of biology today. The introduction of chromatin immunoprecipitations (ChIP) represents a major advancement in this area. This powerful method allows researchers to probe specific protein-DNA interactions in vivo and to estimate the density of proteins at specific sites genome-wide. We have introduced several improvements to the traditional ChIP assay, which simplify the procedure, greatly reducing the time and labor required to complete the assay. The simplicity of the method yields highly reproducible results. Our improvements facilitate the probing of multiple proteins in a single experiment, which allows for the simultaneous monitoring of many genomic events. This method is particularly useful in kinetic studies where multiple samples are processed at the same time. Starting with sheared chromatin, PCR-ready DNA can be isolated from 16-24 ChIP samples in 4-6 h using the fast method.
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            Brain-derived neurotrophic factor and the development of structural neuronal connectivity.

            During development, neural networks are established in a highly organized manner, which persists throughout life. Neurotrophins play crucial roles in the developing nervous system. Among the neurotrophins, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is highly conserved in gene structure and function during vertebrate evolution, and serves an important role during brain development and in synaptic plasticity. BDNF participates in the formation of appropriate synaptic connections in the brain, and disruptions in this process contribute to disorders of cognitive function. In this review, we first briefly highlight current knowledge on the expression, regulation, and secretion of BDNF. Further, we provide an overview of the possible actions of BDNF in the development of neural circuits, with an emphasis on presynaptic actions of BDNF during the structural development of central neurons.
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              Ezh2, the histone methyltransferase of PRC2, regulates the balance between self-renewal and differentiation in the cerebral cortex.

              Multipotent progenitor cells of the cerebral cortex balance self-renewal and differentiation to produce complex neural lineages in a fixed temporal order in a cell-autonomous manner. We studied the role of the polycomb epigenetic system, a chromatin-based repressive mechanism, in controlling cortical progenitor cell self-renewal and differentiation. We found that the histone methyltransferase of polycomb repressive complex 2 (PCR2), enhancer of Zeste homolog 2 (Ezh2), is essential for controlling the rate at which development progresses within cortical progenitor cell lineages. Loss of function of Ezh2 removes the repressive mark of trimethylated histone H3 at lysine 27 (H3K27me3) in cortical progenitor cells and also prevents its establishment in postmitotic neurons. Removal of this repressive chromatin modification results in marked up-regulation in gene expression, the consequence of which is a shift in the balance between self-renewal and differentiation toward differentiation, both directly to neurons and indirectly via basal progenitor cell genesis. Although the temporal order of neurogenesis and gliogenesis are broadly conserved under these conditions, the timing of neurogenesis, the relative numbers of different cell types, and the switch to gliogenesis are all altered, narrowing the neurogenic period for progenitor cells and reducing their neuronal output. As a consequence, the timing of cortical development is altered significantly after loss of PRC2 function.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                (312) 413-1310 , scpandey@uic.edu
                Journal
                Transl Psychiatry
                Transl Psychiatry
                Translational Psychiatry
                Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
                2158-3188
                6 February 2019
                6 February 2019
                2019
                : 9
                Affiliations
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2175 0319, GRID grid.185648.6, Center for Alcohol Research in Epigenetics, Department of Psychiatry, , University of Illinois at Chicago, ; Chicago, IL 60612 USA
                [2 ]GRID grid.280892.9, Jesse Brown VA Medical Center, ; Chicago, IL 60612 USA
                [3 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2175 0319, GRID grid.185648.6, Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, , University of Illinois at Chicago, ; Chicago, IL 60612 USA
                Article
                367
                10.1038/s41398-019-0367-z
                6365546
                30728347
                © The Author(s) 2019

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

                Funding
                Funded by: FundRef https://doi.org/10.13039/100000027, U.S. Department of Health & Human Services | NIH | National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA);
                Award ID: UO1AA019971; U24AA024605
                Award ID: P50AA022538
                Award ID: RO1AA010005
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: Department of Veterans Affairs (Senior Research Career Scientist award)
                Categories
                Article
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2019

                Clinical Psychology & Psychiatry

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