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      Prognostic Value of Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio in Predicting Death Risk in Patients with Severe Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease

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          Severe hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) may lead to serious complications, which cause child mortality during outbreaks. The aim of this study was to determine whether neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) can predict death risk in severe HFMD.


          Medical records for 664 severe HFMD patients were retrospectively examined, and NLR was calculated from blood counts. Youden’s index was calculated to determine the optimal NLR cutoff. Uni- and multivariate logistic regression were used to determine death risk factors associated with severe HFMD.


          An NLR cutoff value of 2.01 and 2.50 respectively predicted mortality among all 664 severe HFMD and 137 critical HFMD. Among all 664 patients, the multivariate model identified the following as independently associated with death risk: high fever (OR 3.342, 95% CI 1.736–6.432), EV71 infection (OR 3.200, 95% CI 1.529–6.698), fasting glucose (OR 37.343, 95% CI 18.616–74.909), and NLR (>2.01) (OR 2.142, 95% CI 1.125–4.079). Among 137 critical HFMD, EV71 infection (OR 3.441, 95% CI 1.132–10.462), fasting glucose (OR 14.173, 95% CI 4.920–40.827), and NLR (>2.50) (OR 4.166, 95% CI 1.570–11.051) were associated with death risk.


          In conclusion, NLR (>2.01) in severe HFMD and NLR (>2.50) in critical HFMD patients may be associated with increased death risk.

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          Most cited references 34

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          Neurologic complications in children with enterovirus 71 infection.

          Enterovirus 71 infection causes hand-foot-and-mouth disease in young children, which is characterized by several days of fever and vomiting, ulcerative lesions in the oral mucosa, and vesicles on the backs of the hands and feet. The initial illness resolves but is sometimes followed by aseptic meningitis, encephalomyelitis, or even acute flaccid paralysis similar to paralytic poliomyelitis. We describe the neurologic complications associated with the enterovirus 71 epidemic that occurred in Taiwan in 1998. At three major hospitals we identified 41 children with culture-confirmed enterovirus 71 infection and acute neurologic manifestations. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed in 4 patients with acute flaccid paralysis and 24 with rhombencephalitis. The mean age of the patients was 2.5 years (range, 3 months to 8.2 years). Twenty-eight patients had hand-foot-and-mouth disease (68 percent), and 6 had herpangina (15 percent). The other seven patients had no skin or mucosal lesions. Three neurologic syndromes were identified: aseptic meningitis (in 3 patients); brain-stem encephalitis, or rhombencephalitis (in 37); and acute flaccid paralysis (in 4), which followed rhombencephalitis in 3 patients. In 20 patients with rhombencephalitis, the syndrome was characterized by myoclonic jerks and tremor, ataxia, or both (grade I disease). Ten patients had myoclonus and cranial-nerve involvement (grade II disease). In seven patients the brain-stem infection produced transient myoclonus followed by the rapid onset of respiratory distress, cyanosis, poor peripheral perfusion, shock, coma, loss of the doll's eye reflex, and apnea (grade III disease); five of these patients died within 12 hours after admission. In 17 of the 24 patients with rhombencephalitis who underwent MRI, T2-weighted scans showed high-intensity lesions in the brain stem, most commonly in the pontine tegmentum. At follow-up, two of the patients with acute flaccid paralysis had residual limb weakness, and five of the patients with rhombencephalitis had persistent neurologic deficits, including myoclonus (in one child), cranial-nerve deficits (in two), and ventilator-dependent apnea (in two). In the 1998 enterovirus 71 epidemic in Taiwan, the chief neurologic complication was rhombencephalitis, which had a fatality rate of 14 percent. The most common initial symptoms were myoclonic jerks, and MRI usually showed evidence of brainstem involvement.
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            Efficacy, safety, and immunogenicity of an enterovirus 71 vaccine in China.

            Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is one of the major causative agents of outbreaks of hand, foot, and mouth disease or herpangina worldwide. This phase 3 trial was designed to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and immunogenicity of an EV71 vaccine. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial in which 10,007 healthy infants and young children (6 to 35 months of age) were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive two intramuscular doses of either EV71 vaccine or placebo, 28 days apart. The surveillance period was 12 months. The primary end point was the occurrence of EV71-associated hand, foot, and mouth disease or herpangina. During the 12-month surveillance period, EV71-associated disease was identified in 0.3% of vaccine recipients (13 of 5041 children) and 2.1% of placebo recipients (106 of 5028 children) in the intention-to-treat cohort. The vaccine efficacy against EV71-associated hand, foot, and mouth disease or herpangina was 94.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 87.2 to 97.9; P<0.001) in this cohort. Vaccine efficacies against EV71-associated hospitalization (0 cases vs. 24 cases) and hand, foot, and mouth disease with neurologic complications (0 cases vs. 8 cases) were both 100% (95% CI, 83.7 to 100 and 42.6 to 100, respectively). Serious adverse events occurred in 111 of 5044 children in the vaccine group (2.2%) and 131 of 5033 children in the placebo group (2.6%). In the immunogenicity subgroup (1291 children), an anti-EV71 immune response was elicited by the two-dose vaccine series in 98.8% of participants at day 56. An anti-EV71 neutralizing antibody titer of 1:16 was associated with protection against EV71-associated hand, foot, and mouth disease or herpangina. The EV71 vaccine provided protection against EV71-associated hand, foot, and mouth disease or herpangina in infants and young children. (Funded by Sinovac Biotech; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01507857.).
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              Neutrophil lymphocyte ratio as a measure of systemic inflammation in prevalent chronic diseases in Asian population

              Background Preliminary evidence has suggested the role of inflammation in development and prognosis of cardiovascular diseases and cancers. Most of the prognostic studies failed to account for the effects of co-morbid conditions as these might have raised the systemic inflammation. We used neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (NLR) as a measure of systemic inflammation and investigated its association with prevalent chronic conditions. Methods Present study is a cross sectional study conducted on population of Karachi, Pakistan. A detailed questionnaire about the demographic details of all subjects was filled and an informed consent obtained for blood sampling. Multinomial regression analyses were carried out to investigate the relationship between NLR and prevalent chronic conditions. Results 1070 apparently healthy individuals participated in the study. Proportion of individuals with hypertension was higher in middle and highest tertile of NLR as compared to the lowest tertile (18.2% & 16.1% compared to 11.8%). Individuals with hypertension were 43% (RRR = 1.43, 95% CI 0.94-2.20) and 66% (RRR = 1.69, 95% CI 1.09-2.54) more likely to be in the middle and highest tertile of NLR respectively compared to the baseline group. Similarly, individuals with diabetes mellitus were 53% (RRR = 1.53, 95% CI 0.93-2.51) and 65% (RRR = 1.65, 95% CI 1.01-2.71) more likely to be in the middle or highest tertile of NLR as compared to the baseline NLR group. Conclusions Systemic inflammation measured by NLR has a significant association with prevalent chronic conditions. Future research is needed to investigate this relationship with longitudinal data to establish the temporal association between these variables.

                Author and article information

                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                23 October 2020
                : 16
                : 1023-1029
                [1 ]Department of Infectious Diseases, Xi’an Jiaotong University Second Affiliated Hospital , Xi’an 710004, People’s Republic of China
                [2 ]Department of Infectious Diseases, Xi’an Children’s Hospital , Xi’an 710003, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Shuangsuo Dang; Song Zhai Department of Infectious Diseases, Xi’an Jiaotong University Second Affiliated Hospital , Xi’an710004, People’s Republic of ChinaTel/Fax +86-29-87679688; +86 18991307953Fax +86 29-87679273 Email dangshuangsuo123@xjtu.edu.cn; zhaisong1103@xjtu.edu.cn
                © 2020 Li et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 12, References: 35, Pages: 7
                Funded by: National Natural Science Foundation of China, open-funder-registry 10.13039/501100001809;
                This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (grant No. 81701632).
                Original Research


                enterovirus 71, hand, foot and mouth disease, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, risk factor


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