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      Diabetes Distress and Associated Factors in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus in South East Nigeria

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          Abstract

          Background: Diabetes distress (DD) is a common worldwide problem in diabetic patients irrespective of age and type of treatment. In the DAWN 2 study (Diabetes Attitudes, Wishes, and Needs), DD was reported by 44.6% of participants. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence and level of DD and its associated factors among adult diabetic patients in South East Nigeria. Methods: The present study was cross-sectional and descriptive. Patients attending the adult diabetes clinic were enrolled. The questionnaire was administered by the investigators. All patients were eligible. Their demographic and clinical data were obtained. They were screened for DD using the DD Scale (DDS)-2 and DDS-17. Data were tabulated and analyzed using SPSS version 21. Results: There were 110 subjects (38 males and 72 females), aged 36–85 years (60.5 ± 10.0). Only 9 (8.2%) had diabetes mellitus (DM) type 1, while the rest had type 2 DM. Twenty-five subjects (22.7%) were on insulin injection. Hypertension was coexistent in 72%, and they were prescribed 3–10 medications (5.9 ± 1.5) at the time of assessment. The male and female subjects were comparable. Moderate to severe DD was present in 51.9% (DDS-17). The average scores were for DDS-2, 3.1; DDS-17, 2.3; emotional burden, 2.9; physician-related distress, 1.4; regimen-related distress, 2.5, and interpersonal distress, 2.2. Distress was significantly associated with a younger age, T1DM, longer duration of diabetes, use of insulin injection, and HbA<sub>1C</sub> level. Conclusion: DD is a common consequence of living with diabetes and impairs diabetes self-care behavior and glycemic control. Active screening for DD should be an integral part of diabetes care. Diabetes self-management education and support should be implemented at diagnosis and as needed thereafter, especially when DD is diagnosed.

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          Most cited references 33

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          Assessing psychosocial distress in diabetes: development of the diabetes distress scale.

          The purpose of this study was to describe the development of the Diabetes Distress Scale (DDS), a new instrument for the assessment of diabetes-related emotional distress, based on four independent patient samples. In consultation with patients and professionals from multiple disciplines, a preliminary scale of 28 items was developed, based a priori on four distress-related domains: emotional burden subscale, physician-related distress subscale, regimen-related distress subscale, and diabetes-related interpersonal distress. The new instrument was included in a larger battery of questionnaires used in diabetes studies at four diverse sites: waiting room at a primary care clinic (n = 200), waiting room at a diabetes specialty clinic (n = 179), a diabetes management study program (n = 167), and an ongoing diabetes management program (n = 158). Exploratory factor analyses revealed four factors consistent across sites (involving 17 of the 28 items) that matched the critical content domains identified earlier. The correlation between the 28-item and 17-item scales was very high (r = 0.99). The mean correlation between the 17-item total score (DDS) and the four subscales was high (r = 0.82), but the pattern of interscale correlations suggested that the subscales, although not totally independent, tapped into relatively different areas of diabetes-related distress. Internal reliability of the DDS and the four subscales was adequate (alpha > 0.87), and validity coefficients yielded significant linkages with the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, meal planning, exercise, and total cholesterol. Insulin users evidenced the highest mean DDS total scores, whereas diet-controlled subjects displayed the lowest scores (P < 0.001). The DDS has a consistent, generalizable factor structure and good internal reliability and validity across four different clinical sites. The new instrument may serve as a valuable measure of diabetes-related emotional distress for use in research and clinical practice.
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            The Problem Areas in Diabetes Scale. An evaluation of its clinical utility.

            To evaluate the reliability and concurrent and discriminant validity of the Problem Areas in Diabetes (PAID) scale, a new measure of emotional functioning in diabetes. A battery of questionnaires, including the PAID, was completed by 256 volunteer diabetic outpatients. In our analyses, we examined the PAID's internal structure and compared mean IDDM and NIDDM treatment group scores in regression analyses to explore its discriminant validity. We also evaluated concurrent validity from the correlations between the PAID and diabetes-specific measures of coping and health attitudes and HbA1c. Principal component analyses identified a large emotional adjustment factor, supporting the use of the total score. Significant sizable correlations were found between the PAID and a range of selected health attitudinal measures. There were significant differences (with small-to-moderate effect sizes) in PAID scores between IDDM and NIDDM patients and between IDDM and NIDDM insulin- and tablet-treated subgroups; no differences were found between NIDDM insulin- and tablet-treated subgroups. The study findings provided support for the construct validity of the PAID, including evidence for discriminant validity from its ability to detect differences between IDDM and NIDDM treatment groups expected to differ in the emotional impact of life with diabetes. Future studies should explore the PAID's performance in nonspecialist treatment settings as well as its responsiveness to clinical change.
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              Psychological insulin resistance in patients with type 2 diabetes: the scope of the problem.

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                DDE
                10.1159/issn.2673-1738
                International Journal of Diabetes and Metabolism
                S. Karger AG
                2673-1797
                2673-1738
                2020
                December 2020
                31 August 2020
                : 26
                : 1
                : 31-37
                Affiliations
                Department of Medicine, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria
                Author notes
                *Belonwu M. Onyenekwe, Department of Medicine, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu 400001 (Nigeria), drmends@gmail.com
                Article
                508706 Dubai Diabetes Endocrinol J 2020;26:31–37
                10.1159/000508706
                © 2020 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel

                This article is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC-ND). Usage and distribution for commercial purposes as well as any distribution of modified material requires written permission. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 4, Pages: 7
                Categories
                Research Article

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