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Reply: Diabetogenic Potential of Ancestral and Modern Wheat Landraces, Nutrients 2017, 9, 816

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      Gluten-free diet prevents diabetes in NOD mice.

      Epidemiological as well as animal studies have shown that environmental factors such as nutrition contribute to the development of diabetes. In this study we investigated whether the early introduction of a gluten-free diet can influence the onset and/or incidence of diabetes, as well as insulitis and the number of gut mucosal lymphocytes, in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. Gluten-free and standard Altromin diets (with the same milk protein and vitamin content) were given to breeding pairs of NOD mice as well as to the first generation of NOD female mice, which were then observed for 320 days. A substantially lower diabetes incidence (chi(2)=15.8, p=0.00007) was observed in NOD mice on the gluten-free diet (15%, n=27) compared to mice on the standard diet (64%, n=28). In addition, mice on the gluten-free diet developed diabetes significantly later (244+/-24 days SEM) compared to those on the standard diet (197+/-8 days, p=0.03). No differences in the number of CD3(+), TCR-gammadelta(+), IgA(+), and IgM(+) cells in the small intestine were observed. We showed that gluten-free diet both delayed and to a large extent prevented diabetes in NOD mice that have never been exposed to gluten. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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        The Impact of Diet Wheat Source on the Onset of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus—Lessons Learned from the Non-Obese Diabetic (NOD) Mouse Model

        Nutrition, especially wheat consumption, is a major factor involved in the onset of type 1 diabetes (T1D) and other autoimmune diseases such as celiac. While modern wheat cultivars possess similar gliadin proteins associated with the onset of celiac disease and T1D, alternative dietary wheat sources from Israeli landraces and native ancestral species may be lacking the epitopes linked with T1D, potentially reducing the incidence of T1D. The Non-Obese Diabetic (NOD) mouse model was used to monitor the effects of dietary wheat sources on the onset and development of T1D. The effects of modern wheat flour were compared with those from either T. aestivum, T. turgidum spp. dicoccoides, or T. turgidum spp. dicoccum landraces or a non-wheat diet. Animals which received wheat from local landraces or ancestral species such as emmer displayed a lower incidence of T1D and related complications compared to animals fed a modern wheat variety. This study is the first report of the diabetogenic properties of various dietary wheat sources and suggests that alternative dietary wheat sources may lack T1D linked epitopes, thus reducing the incidence of T1D.
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          Author and article information

          Affiliations
          [1 ]Eastern Regional Research and Development Center, Judea Center, Kiryat Arba 90100, Israel; yludmila@ 123456post.bgu.ac.il (L.Y.); abudovsky@ 123456gmail.com (A.B.)
          [2 ]Department of Clinical Biochemistry and Pharmacology, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva 84990, Israel; boriskh83@ 123456gmail.com (B.K.); sbs@ 123456bgu.ac.il (S.B.-S.)
          [3 ]Institute of Plant Sciences, ARO-Volcani Center, Rishon LeZion 50250, Israel; vcjosh@ 123456volcani.agri.gov.il
          [4 ]Siap Laboratory, Rehovot 76267, Israel; siap.013.lab@ 123456gmail.com
          [5 ]Department of Information Science and Systems, Morgan State University; Baltimore, MD 21251, USA; maxim.bushuev@ 123456morgan.edu
          [6 ]Scheller College of Business at Georgia Tech, Atlanta, GA 30308, USA; tatiana.rudchenko@ 123456scheller.gatech.edu
          Author notes
          [* ]Correspondence: jonathangorelick@ 123456gmail.com ; Tel.: +972-52-605-1332
          Journal
          Nutrients
          Nutrients
          nutrients
          Nutrients
          MDPI
          2072-6643
          23 August 2017
          September 2017
          : 9
          : 9
          28832516 5622682 10.3390/nu9090922 nutrients-09-00922
          © 2017 by the authors.

          Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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          Nutrition & Dietetics

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