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      Adipose Tissue and Mesenchymal Stem Cells: State of the Art and Lipogems® Technology Development

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          Abstract

          In the past few years, interest in adipose tissue as an ideal source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has increased. These cells are multipotent and may differentiate in vitro into several cellular lineages, such as adipocytes, chondrocytes, osteoblasts, and myoblasts. In addition, they secrete many bioactive molecules and thus are considered “mini-drugstores.” MSCs are being used increasingly for many clinical applications, such as orthopedic, plastic, and reconstructive surgery. Adipose-derived MSCs are routinely obtained enzymatically from fat lipoaspirate as SVF and/or may undergo prolonged ex vivo expansion, with significant senescence and a decrease in multipotency, leading to unsatisfactory clinical results. Moreover, these techniques are hampered by complex regulatory issues. Therefore, an innovative technique (Lipogems®; Lipogems International SpA, Milan, Italy) was developed to obtain microfragmented adipose tissue with an intact stromal vascular niche and MSCs with a high regenerative capacity. The Lipogems® technology, patented in 2010 and clinically available since 2013, is an easy-to-use system designed to harvest, process, and inject refined fat tissue and is characterized by optimal handling ability and a great regenerative potential based on adipose-derived MSCs. In this novel technology, the adipose tissue is washed, emulsified, and rinsed and adipose cluster dimensions gradually are reduced to about 0.3 to 0.8 mm. In the resulting Lipogems® product, pericytes are retained within an intact stromal vascular niche and are ready to interact with the recipient tissue after transplantation, thereby becoming MSCs and starting the regenerative process. Lipogems® has been used in more than 7000 patients worldwide in aesthetic medicine and surgery, as well as in orthopedic and general surgery, with remarkable and promising results and seemingly no drawbacks. Now, several clinical trials are under way to support the initial encouraging outcomes. Lipogems® technology is emerging as a valid intraoperative system to obtain an optimal final product that may be used immediately for regenerative purposes.

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          Most cited references36

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          Adult mesenchymal stem cells for tissue engineering versus regenerative medicine.

          Adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be isolated from bone marrow or marrow aspirates and because they are culture-dish adherent, they can be expanded in culture while maintaining their multipotency. The MSCs have been used in preclinical models for tissue engineering of bone, cartilage, muscle, marrow stroma, tendon, fat, and other connective tissues. These tissue-engineered materials show considerable promise for use in rebuilding damaged or diseased mesenchymal tissues. Unanticipated is the realization that the MSCs secrete a large spectrum of bioactive molecules. These molecules are immunosuppressive, especially for T-cells and, thus, allogeneic MSCs can be considered for therapeutic use. In this context, the secreted bioactive molecules provide a regenerative microenvironment for a variety of injured adult tissues to limit the area of damage and to mount a self-regulated regenerative response. This regenerative microenvironment is referred to as trophic activity and, therefore, MSCs appear to be valuable mediators for tissue repair and regeneration. The natural titers of MSCs that are drawn to sites of tissue injury can be augmented by allogeneic MSCs delivered via the bloodstream. Indeed, human clinical trials are now under way to use allogeneic MSCs for treatment of myocardial infarcts, graft-versus-host disease, Crohn's Disease, cartilage and meniscus repair, stroke, and spinal cord injury. This review summarizes the biological basis for the in vivo functioning of MSCs through development and aging.
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            A phase I clinical trial of the treatment of Crohn's fistula by adipose mesenchymal stem cell transplantation.

            The effective management of fistulas in patients with Crohn's disease presents an extremely challenging problem. Mesenchymal adult stem cells extracted from certain tissues, such as adipose tissue, can differentiate into various cell types. Therefore, we have tried to use such cells to stimulate healing of Crohn's fistulas. We designed a prospective Phase I clinical trial, involving five patients with Crohn's disease, to test the feasibility and safety of autologous stem cells transplantation in the treatment of fistulas. We also studied the expression of various cell markers and the growth rates of the lipoaspirate-derived cells that were used for transplantation. One patient was excluded because of bacterial contamination of cultured cells. We inoculated nine fistulas in four patients with autologous adipose tissue-derived stem cells at Passage 3 or earlier. Eight inoculated fistulas were followed weekly for at least eight weeks. In six fistulas, the external opening was covered with epithelium at the end of Week 8, and, thus, these fistulas were considered healed (75 percent). In the other two fistulas, there was only incomplete closure of the external opening, with a decrease in output flow (not healed; 25 percent). No adverse effects were observed in any patient at the end of the follow-up period (minimum follow-up,12 months; maximum follow-up, 30 months; follow-up average, 22 months). To our knowledge, this is the first report of a clinical trial of cell therapy using autologous stem cells obtained from a lipoaspirate. Our results indicate that our protocol is feasible and safe for the treatment of fistulas in Crohn's disease. The number of patients included and the uncontrolled nature of Phase I clinical trials do not allow demonstration of the effectiveness of the treatment. However, the results of the present study encourage to perform further studies in Phase II.
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              Nanofat grafting: basic research and clinical applications.

              The indications for fat grafting are increasing steadily. In microfat grafting, thin injection cannulas are used. The authors describe their experience of fat injection with even thinner injection needles up to 27 gauge. The fat used for this purpose is processed into "nanofat." Clinical applications are described. Preliminary results of a study, set up to determine the cellular contents of nanofat, are presented.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                ++39-335-6963371 , carlo.tremolada@gmail.com
                Journal
                Curr Stem Cell Rep
                Curr Stem Cell Rep
                Current Stem Cell Reports
                Springer International Publishing (Cham )
                2198-7866
                13 July 2016
                13 July 2016
                2016
                : 2
                : 304-312
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Image Institute, Milan, Italy
                [2 ]Stem Wave Institute for Tissue Healing (SWITH)—Ettore Sansavini Health Science Foundation, Lugo, Ravenna, Italy
                Author notes

                This article is part of the Topical Collection on Stem Cells: Policies from the Bench to the Clinic

                Article
                53
                10.1007/s40778-016-0053-5
                4972861
                27547712
                e2caeb7f-aee6-4658-b676-b4347618acf1
                © The Author(s) 2016

                Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

                Categories
                Stem Cells: Policies from the Bench to the Clinic (AI Caplan and TL Bonfield, Section Editors)
                Custom metadata
                © Springer International Publishing AG 2016

                mesenchymal stem cell,lipogems®,adipose tissue,regenerative medicine,adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cell,adult stem cells

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