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      Renal Transplant Outcome in Children with an Augmented Bladder

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          Objective: Studies evaluating renal transplant (RT) outcome in children who underwent an augmentation cystoplasty (AC) are contradictory and the current knowledge is based on studies with a limited number of patients. The aim of this study is to compare RT outcome between children who underwent AC and those without augmentation.

          Patients and methods: A total of 20p who underwent an AC prior to the RT (12 with ureter and 8 with intestine) were enrolled in the study and were compared to a control group of 24p without AC, transplanted in the same time period (1991–2011). Data including; age at transplant, allograft source, urological complications, urinary tract infections (UTI) incidence, the presence of VUR, and patient and graft survival were compared between the groups.

          Results: Mean age at RT and mean follow-up were 9.7 vs. 7.9 years and 6.9 vs. 7.9 years in the AC group and control group, respectively (NS). The graft originated in living donors for 60% of AC patients and 41.6% of the control RT patients. The rate of UTI were 0.01 UTI/patient/year and 0.004 UTI/patient/year in the augmented group and controls, respectively ( p = 0.0001). In the AC group of 14p with UTIs, 10 (71%) had VUR and 5p out of 8 (62.5%) in the control group had VUR. In the AC group, of the 7p with ≥3 UTIs, 3 (43%) were non-compliant with CIC and the incidence of UTIs was not related with the type of AC or if the patient did CIC through a Mitrofanoff conduit or through the urethra. Graft function at the end of study was 92.9 ± 36.85 ml/min/m 2 in the AC group and 88.17 ± 28.2 ml/min/m 2 in the control group (NS). Graft survival at 10 years was also similar 88% in the AC group and 84.8% in controls. In the AC group 3p lost their grafts and 5 in the control group with respective mean follow-up of 10.6 ± 4.3 and 7.1 + 4.7 years.

          Conclusion: There are no significant differences in the RT outcome between children transplanted with AC or without. However, recurrent UTIs are more frequent in the former group and these UTIs are related with non-compliance with CIC or the presence of VUR but, even so, UTIs will not lead to impaired graft function in most of the patients.

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          Most cited references 12

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          A simple estimate of glomerular filtration rate in children derived from body length and plasma creatinine.

          Based on statistical analysis of data in 186 children, a formula was derived which allows accurate estimation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) from plasma creatinine and body lenght (GFR(ml/min/1.73 sq m) = 0.55 length (cm)/Per (mg/dl). Its application to clearance data in a separate group of 223 children reveals excellent agreement with GFR estimated by the Ccr (r = .935) or Cin (r = .905). This formula should be useful for adjusting dosages of drugs excreted by the kidney and detecting significant changes in renal function.
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            Regenerative medicine strategies.

             Anthony Atala (2012)
            Applications of regenerative medicine technology may offer novel therapies for patients with injuries, end-stage organ failure, or other clinical problems. Currently, patients suffering from diseased and injured organs can be treated with transplanted organs. However, there is a severe shortage of donor organs that is worsening yearly as the population ages and new cases of organ failure increase. Scientists in the field of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering are now applying the principles of cell transplantation, material science, and bioengineering to construct biological substitutes that will restore and maintain normal function in diseased and injured tissues. The stem cell field is also advancing rapidly, opening new avenues for this type of therapy. For example, therapeutic cloning and cellular reprogramming may one day provide a potentially limitless source of cells for tissue engineering applications. While stem cells are still in the research phase, some therapies arising from tissue engineering endeavors have already entered the clinical setting successfully, indicating the promise regenerative medicine holds for the future. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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              Augmentation cystoplasty in renal transplantation: a good and safe option--experience with 25 cases.

              To assess the surgical and long-term results of renal transplantation in 25 patients with bladder dysfunction and augmentation cystoplasty. We retrospectively reviewed the evolution and surgical outcome of 25 renal transplants in 24 recipients with augmentation cystoplasty. The mean patient age at transplantation was 27.6 years. The etiology of bladder dysfunction was neurogenic bladder with detrusor hyperreflexia (11 patients), tuberculosis (5 patients), vesicoureteral reflux (4 patients), posterior urethral valves (3 patients), and interstitial cystitis (1 patient). Seventeen transplants were from living donors. Augmentation cystoplasty was performed before transplantation in 21 patients. The bowel segments used in the augmentation cystoplasty included ileum in 16, ileocecal segments in 2, and sigmoid in 5 patients. The donor ureter was anastomosed to the native bladder in 16 patients, to the bowel segment in 6, and to the native ureter in 3. Twenty kidneys (80%) were functioning at a mean follow-up of 53.2 months (range 6 to 118). The mean serum creatinine was 1.56 mg/dL (range 0.7 to 2.6). Three patients died of unrelated causes and 1 of adenocarcinoma that originated at the vesicointestinal anastomosis. The actuarial graft survival at 1, 2, and 5 years was 96%, 92%, and 78%, respectively. Complications included symptomatic urinary infection, ureteral stenosis, and lymphocele. Augmentation cystoplasty is a safe and effective method to restore function in noncompliant bladders. Renal transplantation can be performed safely after augmentation cystoplasty.

                Author and article information

                Front Pediatr
                Front Pediatr
                Front. Pediatr.
                Frontiers in Pediatrics
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                09 October 2013
                04 December 2013
                : 1
                1Paediatric Urology, University Hospital La Paz , Madrid, Spain
                2Paediatric Nephrologist, University Hospital La Paz , Madrid, Spain
                Author notes

                Edited by: Miguel Alfedo Castellan, University of Miami, USA

                Reviewed by: Armando J. Lorenzo, Hospital for Sick Children, Canada; Christopher Cooper, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, USA

                *Correspondence: P. Lopez Pereira, Paediatric Urology, University Hospital La Paz, Paseo de la Castellana, 261, Madrid 28046, Spain e-mail: plpuro@ 123456hotmail.com

                This article was submitted to Pediatric Urology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Pediatrics.

                Copyright © 2013 Lopez Pereira, Ortiz Rodriguez, Fernandez Camblor, Martínez Urrutia, Lobato Romera, Espinosa and Jaureguizar Monereo.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 1, Equations: 0, References: 12, Pages: 4, Words: 3076
                Original Research

                bladder augmentation, renal transplant, children


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