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      Long-Term Disease Control with Triapine-Based Radiochemotherapy for Patients with Stage IB2–IIIB Cervical Cancer


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          Background: National Cancer Institute phase I #7336 and phase II #8327 clinical trials explored the safety and efficacy of triapine (NSC #663249) added to cisplatin radiochemotherapy in untreated patients with advanced-stage cervical cancer. Triapine inhibits ribonucleotide reductase, the rate-limiting enzyme responsible for DNA-building deoxyribonucleotides, and thereby, enhances radiochemosensitivity by prolonging DNA repair time. Here, we report 3-year efficacy endpoints of pelvic locoregional relapse rate, disease-free, and overall survivals.

          Methods: Eligible patients with bulky IB–IIIB cervical cancer underwent three-times weekly triapine (25 or 50 mg/m 2), once-weekly cisplatin (40 mg/m 2), and conventional daily pelvic radiation followed by brachytherapy. A cumulative incidence method estimated pelvic locoregional relapse rates. Disease-free survival was measured from radiochemotherapy start date to the date of first relapse or cancer-related death. Overall survival was measured from radiochemotherapy start date to the date of any-cause death. The Kaplan–Meier method estimated survivals.

          Findings: Between 2006 and 2011, 24 untreated patients with cervical cancer met criteria for reporting in this study. A median 3.4 years of follow-up time (range, 0.3–7.6 years) has been observed. All had squamous cancers and the majority had either node-positive stage IB–IIA (33%) or stage IIIB (42%) disease. The 3-year pelvic locoregional relapse rate, disease-free survival, and overall survival were 4% [95% confidence interval (CI), 0–20%], 80% (95% CI: 71–89%), and 82% (95% CI: 74–90%), respectively.

          Interpretation: Triapine radiochemotherapy was safe, active, and effective in patients with untreated advanced-stage cervical cancer, worthy of randomized clinical trial study.

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          Improved survival with bevacizumab in advanced cervical cancer.

          Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) promotes angiogenesis, a mediator of disease progression in cervical cancer. Bevacizumab, a humanized anti-VEGF monoclonal antibody, has single-agent activity in previously treated, recurrent disease. Most patients in whom recurrent cervical cancer develops have previously received cisplatin with radiation therapy, which reduces the effectiveness of cisplatin at the time of recurrence. We evaluated the effectiveness of bevacizumab and nonplatinum combination chemotherapy in patients with recurrent, persistent, or metastatic cervical cancer. Using a 2-by-2 factorial design, we randomly assigned 452 patients to chemotherapy with or without bevacizumab at a dose of 15 mg per kilogram of body weight. Chemotherapy consisted of cisplatin at a dose of 50 mg per square meter of body-surface area, plus paclitaxel at a dose of 135 or 175 mg per square meter or topotecan at a dose of 0.75 mg per square meter on days 1 to 3, plus paclitaxel at a dose of 175 mg per square meter on day 1. Cycles were repeated every 21 days until disease progression, the development of unacceptable toxic effects, or a complete response was documented. The primary end point was overall survival; a reduction of 30% in the hazard ratio for death was considered clinically important. Groups were well balanced with respect to age, histologic findings, performance status, previous use or nonuse of a radiosensitizing platinum agent, and disease status. Topotecan-paclitaxel was not superior to cisplatin-paclitaxel (hazard ratio for death, 1.20). With the data for the two chemotherapy regimens combined, the addition of bevacizumab to chemotherapy was associated with increased overall survival (17.0 months vs. 13.3 months; hazard ratio for death, 0.71; 98% confidence interval, 0.54 to 0.95; P=0.004 in a one-sided test) and higher response rates (48% vs. 36%, P=0.008). Bevacizumab, as compared with chemotherapy alone, was associated with an increased incidence of hypertension of grade 2 or higher (25% vs. 2%), thromboembolic events of grade 3 or higher (8% vs. 1%), and gastrointestinal fistulas of grade 3 or higher (3% vs. 0%). The addition of bevacizumab to combination chemotherapy in patients with recurrent, persistent, or metastatic cervical cancer was associated with an improvement of 3.7 months in median overall survival. (Funded by the National Cancer Institute; GOG 240 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00803062.).
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            Phase II trial of bevacizumab in the treatment of persistent or recurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix: a gynecologic oncology group study.

            Vascular endothelial growth factor is a key promoter of tumor progression in cervical carcinoma. The Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG) conducted a phase II trial to assess the efficacy and tolerability of bevacizumab, a recombinant humanized anti-vascular endothelial growth factor monoclonal antibody. Eligible patients had recurrent cervical cancer, measurable disease, and GOG performance status < or = 2. Treatment consisted of bevacizumab 15 mg/kg intravenously every 21 days until disease progression or prohibitive toxicity. Primary end points were progression-free survival (PFS) at 6 months and toxicity. Forty-six patients were enrolled (median age, 46 years); 38 patients (82.6%) received prior radiation as well as either one (n = 34, 73.9%) or two (n = 12, 26.1%) prior cytotoxic regimens for recurrent disease. Grade 3 or 4 adverse events at least possibly related to bevacizumab included hypertension (n = 7), thrombo-embolism (n = 5), GI (n = 4), anemia (n = 2), other cardiovascular (n = 2), vaginal bleeding (n = 1), neutropenia (n = 1), and fistula (n = 1). One grade 5 infection was observed. Eleven patients (23.9%; two-sided 90% CI, 14% to 37%) survived progression free for at least 6 months, and five patients (10.9%; two-sided 90% CI, 4% to 22%) had partial responses. The median response duration was 6.21 months (range, 2.83 to 8.28 months). The median PFS and overall survival times were 3.40 months (95% CI, 2.53 to 4.53 months) and 7.29 months (95% CI, 6.11 to 10.41 months), respectively. This compared favorably with historical phase II GOG trials in this setting. CONCLUSION Bevacizumab seems to be well tolerated and active in the second- and third-line treatment of patients with recurrent cervical cancer and merits phase III investigation.
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              RTOG 0417: efficacy of bevacizumab in combination with definitive radiation therapy and cisplatin chemotherapy in untreated patients with locally advanced cervical carcinoma.

              Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0417 was a phase II study that explored the safety and efficacy of the addition of bevacizumab to chemoradiation therapy. The safety results have been previously reported. Herein we report the secondary efficacy endpoints of overall survival (OS), locoregional failure (LRF), para-aortic nodal failure (PAF), distant failure (DF), and disease-free survival (DFS). Eligible patients with bulky Stage IB-IIIB disease were treated with once-weekly cisplatin (40 mg/m2) chemotherapy and standard pelvic radiation therapy and brachytherapy. Bevacizumab was administered at 10 mg/kg intravenously every 2 weeks for 3 cycles during chemoradiation. For OS, failure was defined as death of any cause and was measured from study entry to date of death. LRF was defined as any failure in the pelvis. PAF was defined as any para-aortic nodal failure. DF was analyzed both including and excluding PAF. DFS was measured from study entry to date of first LRF. DF was measured with or without PAF or death. OS and DFS were estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method, and LRF and DF rates were estimated by the cumulative incidence method. 49 eligible patients from 28 institutions were enrolled between 2006 and 2009. The median follow-up time was 3.8 years (range, 0.8-6.0 years). The surviving patients had a median follow-up time of 3.9 years (range, 2.1-6.0 years). Most patients had tumors of International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics Stage IIB (63%), and 80% were squamous. The 3-year OS, DFS, and LRF were 81.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 67.2%-89.8%), 68.7% (95% CI, 53.5%-79.8%), and 23.2% (95% CI, 11%-35.4%), respectively. The PAF, DF without PAF, and DF with PAF at 3 years were 8.4% (95% CI, 0.4%-16.3%), 14.7% (95% CI, 4.5%-24.9%), and 23.1% (95% CI 11.0%-35.2%), respectively. In this study, bevacizumab in combination with standard pelvic chemoradiation therapy for locally advanced cervical cancer showed efficacy results that are promising and may warrant further investigation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

                Author and article information

                URI : http://frontiersin.org/people/u/43026
                URI : http://frontiersin.org/people/u/173781
                Front Oncol
                Front Oncol
                Front. Oncol.
                Frontiers in Oncology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                24 July 2014
                : 4
                : 184
                [1] 1Department of Radiation Oncology, Summa Cancer Institute, Summa Health System , Akron, OH, USA
                [2] 2Department of Radiation Oncology, CASE Comprehensive Cancer Center, University Hospitals Case Medical Center, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine , Cleveland, OH, USA
                Author notes

                Edited by: Adam Paul Dicker, Thomas Jefferson University, USA

                Reviewed by: Loren K. Mell, University of California San Diego, USA; Aradhana Kaushal, National Cancer Institute, USA

                *Correspondence: Charles A. Kunos, Department of Radiation Oncology, Summa Cancer Institute, G-90 161 North Forge Street, Akron, OH 44304, USA e-mail: kunosc@ 123456summahealth.org

                This article was submitted to Radiation Oncology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Oncology.

                Copyright © 2014 Kunos and Sherertz.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                : 08 May 2014
                : 30 June 2014
                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 2, Equations: 0, References: 18, Pages: 5, Words: 3576
                Clinical Trial

                Oncology & Radiotherapy
                triapine,cervical cancer,ribonucleotide reductase,radiation,cisplatin
                Oncology & Radiotherapy
                triapine, cervical cancer, ribonucleotide reductase, radiation, cisplatin


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