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      Effects of Stress and Neuropeptides on Airway Responses in Ovalbumin-Sensitized Rats

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          Abstract

          Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of stress and neuropeptides on airway responses in ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized rats. Methods: Three experimental conditions were employed: neonatal capsaicin treatment, foot shock stress and OVA sensitization. For neuropeptide depletion, male Wistar rats were neonatally treated with capsaicin (50 mg/kg) or with control solution 2 days after birth. Ninety days later, they were injected with OVA and aluminum hydroxide (ED0) or no injection. Thereafter, rats of the stressed groups were individually placed in a shuttle box where they received 50 mild escapable foot shocks/day; the stressful stimuli were repeated until ED14, when the animals received OVA aerosol. Pulmonary mechanic function was measured before and after OVA challenge in anesthetized and mechanically ventilated rats. Results: Data on ultrasonic vocalizations and corticosterone showed high levels of anxiety in stressed animals. As expected, a significant increment in airway elastance and resistance after the OVA challenge was found in sensitized rats compared to non-sensitized ones. Capsaicin treatment decreased the values of elastance in sensitized and non-stressed rats; however, after the OVA challenge, elastance was increased in stressed animals. No differences were found in the levels of resistance among sensitized and non-stressed rats; however, a reduced increment in resistance was verified in capsaicin-treated, stressed animals. Conclusions: Our results suggest that neurokinin depletion and stress may affect smooth muscle tonus around the airways during an anaphylactic reaction. These data suggest that stress and neuropeptides play a significant role in pulmonary function in OVA-sensitized rats.

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          Most cited references 33

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          Nitric oxide in health and disease of the respiratory system.

          During the past decade a plethora of studies have unravelled the multiple roles of nitric oxide (NO) in airway physiology and pathophysiology. In the respiratory tract, NO is produced by a wide variety of cell types and is generated via oxidation of l-arginine that is catalyzed by the enzyme NO synthase (NOS). NOS exists in three distinct isoforms: neuronal NOS (nNOS), inducible NOS (iNOS), and endothelial NOS (eNOS). NO derived from the constitutive isoforms of NOS (nNOS and eNOS) and other NO-adduct molecules (nitrosothiols) have been shown to be modulators of bronchomotor tone. On the other hand, NO derived from iNOS seems to be a proinflammatory mediator with immunomodulatory effects. The concentration of this molecule in exhaled air is abnormal in activated states of different inflammatory airway diseases, and its monitoring is potentially a major advance in the management of, e.g., asthma. Finally, the production of NO under oxidative stress conditions secondarily generates strong oxidizing agents (reactive nitrogen species) that may modulate the development of chronic inflammatory airway diseases and/or amplify the inflammatory response. The fundamental mechanisms driving the altered NO bioactivity under pathological conditions still need to be fully clarified, because their regulation provides a novel target in the prevention and treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases of the airways.
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            Pharmacologically induced selective degeneration of chemosensitive primary sensory neurones

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              Phosphorylation of vanilloid receptor 1 by Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase II regulates its vanilloid binding.

               J Shin,  D. Hwang,  Uhtaek Oh (2004)
              Vanilloid receptor 1 (VR1), a capsaicin receptor, is known to play a major role in mediating inflammatory thermal nociception. Although the physiological role and biophysical properties of VR1 are known, the mechanism of its activation by ligands is poorly understood. Here we show that VR1 must be phosphorylated by Ca2+-calmodulin dependent kinase II (CaMKII) before its activation by capsaicin. In contrast, the dephosphorylation of VR1 by calcineurin leads to a desensitization of the receptor. Moreover, point mutations in VR1 at two putative consensus sites for CaMKII failed to elicit capsaicin-sensitive currents and caused a concomitant reduction in VR1 phosphorylation in vivo. Such mutants also lost their high affinity binding with [3H]resiniferatoxin, a potent capsaicin receptor agonist. We conclude that the dynamic balance between the phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of the VR1 channel by CaMKII and calcineurin, respectively, controls the activation/desensitization states by regulating VR1 binding. Furthermore, because sensitization by protein kinase A and C converge at these sites, phosphorylation stress in the cell appears to control a wide range of excitabilities in response to various adverse stimuli.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NIM
                Neuroimmunomodulation
                10.1159/issn.1021-7401
                Neuroimmunomodulation
                S. Karger AG
                1021-7401
                1423-0216
                2007
                September 2007
                04 September 2007
                : 14
                : 2
                : 105-111
                Affiliations
                aApplied Pharmacology and Toxicology Laboratory, School of Veterinary Medicine, and bDepartment of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
                Article
                107765 Neuroimmunomodulation 2007;14:105–111
                10.1159/000107765
                17785991
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 1, References: 52, Pages: 7
                Categories
                Original Paper

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