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      The Role of Angiogenic Growth Factors in Arteriogenesis

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          Abstract

          Background/Aims: Collateral vessels restore only about 40% of the maximum dilatory reserve after femoral artery occlusion, whereas complete normalization is reached by increased fluid shear stress (FSS). We studied the role of known potent angiogenic growth factors (separately or in combination) in arteriogenesis by determining their expression in FSS-stimulated collaterals and close-to-collateral infusion of growth factor peptides in a rabbit model of femoral artery occlusion. Methods: Values of maximum collateral conductance (C<sub>max</sub>) and post mortem angiograms were compared to those achievable by high FSS. mRNA levels of growth factor ligands and receptors were determined in FSS-stimulated collaterals. Results: Seven days after vessel occlusion, FSS-stimulated legs showed a C<sub>max</sub> not significantly different from that of not occluded femoral arteries. Arteriogenesis was significantly less enhanced after growth factor treatment (MCP-1 86%, Ad5.1-FGF-4 75%, bFGF 72%, PDGF 64%, VEGF 50% of C<sub>max</sub> after FSS stimulation). RT-PCR showed no differential expression of FGF receptors, but an up-regulation of VEGF-receptor-2. Conclusion: The most potent known angiogenic growth factors at high pharmacological doses reach only a fraction of the maximum conductance obtained by high FSS. Arteriogenesis differs from angiogenesis, so the main focus to markedly improve arteriogenesis should be put on the underlying mechanisms of shear stress.

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          Most cited references 28

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          Monocyte activation in angiogenesis and collateral growth in the rabbit hindlimb.

          We have previously shown that monocytes adhere to the vascular wall during collateral vessel growth (arteriogenesis) and capillary sprouting (angiogenesis). In this study we investigated the association of monocyte accumulation with both the production of the cytokines-basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and TNF-alpha-and vessel proliferation in the rabbit after femoral artery occlusion. In particular, we studied the effects of an increase in monocyte recruitment by LPS on capillary density as well as collateral and peripheral conductance after 7 d of occlusion. Monocytes accumulated around day 3 in collateral arteries when maximal proliferation was observed, and stained strongly for bFGF and TNF-alpha. In the lower limb where angiogenesis was shown to be predominant, macrophage accumulation was also closely associated with maximal proliferation (around day 7). LPS treatment significantly increased capillary density (424+/-26.1 n/mm2 vs. 312+/-20.7 n/mm2; P < 0.05) and peripheral conductance (109+/-33.8 ml/min/100 mmHg vs. 45+/-6.8 ml/min/100 mmHg; P < 0.05) as compared with untreated animals after 7 d of occlusion. These results indicate that monocyte activation plays a major role in angiogenesis and collateral artery growth.
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            KLF2 provokes a gene expression pattern that establishes functional quiescent differentiation of the endothelium.

            The flow-responsive transcription factor KLF2 is acquiring a leading role in the regulation of endothelial cell gene expression. A genome-wide microarray expression profiling is described employing lentivirus-mediated, 7-day overexpression of human KLF2 at levels observed under prolonged flow. KLF2 is not involved in lineage typing, as 42 endothelial-specific markers were unaffected. Rather, KLF2 generates a gene transcription profile (> 1000 genes) affecting key functional pathways such as cell migration, vasomotor function, inflammation, and hemostasis and induces a morphology change typical for shear exposure including stress fiber formation. Protein levels for thrombomodulin, endothelial nitric oxide synthase, and plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 are altered to atheroprotective levels, even in the presence of the inflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha. KLF2 attenuates cell migration by affecting multiple genes including VEGFR2 and the potent antimigratory SEMA3F. The distribution of Weibel-Palade bodies in cultured cell populations is normalized at the single-cell level without interfering with their regulated, RalA-dependent release. In contrast, thrombin-induced release of Weibel-Palade bodies is significantly attenuated, consistent with the proposed role of VWF release at low-shear stress regions of the vasculature in atherosclerosis. These results establish that KLF2 acts as a central transcriptional switch point between the quiescent and activated states of the adult endothelial cell.
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              VEGFR-1-selective VEGF homologue PlGF is arteriogenic: evidence for a monocyte-mediated mechanism.

              Two signaling receptors for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the vasculature are known with not yet well-understood roles in collateral vessel growth (arteriogenesis). In this study, we examined the involvement of the two VEGF receptors in arteriogenesis. Therefore, we used the VEGF homologue placenta growth factor (PlGF), which only binds to VEGFR-1 and VEGF-E, which only recognizes VEGFR-2. These peptides were locally infused over 7 days after ligation of the femoral artery in the rabbit. Evaluation of collateral growth by determining collateral conductance and angiographic scores demonstrated that the VEGFR-1-specific PlGF contributed significantly more to arteriogenesis than the VEGFR-2 specific VEGF-E. The combination of VEGF-E and PlGF did not exceed the effect of PlGF alone, indicating that cooperation of the two VEGF receptors in endothelial cell signaling is not required for arteriogenesis. In an in vitro model of angiogenesis, VEGF and VEGF-E were comparably active, whereas PlGF displayed no activity when given alone and did not further increase the effects of VEGF or VEGF-E. However, PlGF was as potent as VEGF when monocyte activation was assessed by monitoring integrin surface expression. In addition, accumulation of activated monocytes/macrophages in the periphery of collateral vessels in PlGF-treated animals was observed. Furthermore, in monocyte-depleted animals, the ability of PlGF to enhance collateral growth in the rabbit model and to rescue impaired arteriogenesis in PlGF gene-deficient mice was abrogated. Together, these data indicate that the arteriogenic activity observed with the VEGFR-1-specific PlGF is caused by its monocyte-activating properties.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                JVR
                J Vasc Res
                10.1159/issn.1018-1172
                Journal of Vascular Research
                S. Karger AG
                1018-1172
                1423-0135
                2009
                June 2009
                10 January 2009
                : 46
                : 4
                : 365-374
                Affiliations
                aMax Planck Institute for Heart and Lung Research, Bad Nauheim, bDivision of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, University of Regensburg, Regensburg, and cDivision of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main, Germany
                Article
                189797 J Vasc Res 2009;46:365–374
                10.1159/000189797
                19142016
                © 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 6, References: 46, Pages: 10
                Categories
                Research Paper

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