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      Two new species of freshwater stingrays of the genus Paratrygon (Chondrichthyes: Potamotrygonidae) from the Orinoco basin, with comments on the taxonomy of Paratrygon aiereba

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          Abstract The genus Paratrygon, currently recognized as the sole monotypic genus of the family Potamotrygonidae, has a considerably greater diversity than previously indicated, including molecular studies, which supported P. aiereba (hitherto the only recognized species in the genus) as a possible species complex. Here we describe two new species of the genus that are both endemic to and sympatric in the Orinoco basin. Paratrygon aiereba, type species of the genus, is now restricted to the Amazon basin. Both new species are identified and defined through morphological characters such as coloration, dermal denticle morphology, arrangement of thorns, distribution and morphology of ventral lateral line canals, morphology of skeletal elements, and morphometrics. An extensive comparison of these characters between the new species herein described and P. aiereba is presented. Finally, a taxonomic reappraisal of P. aiereba is provided through a revision of preserved material and its original description, plus new evidence about its type-locatity, collectors, and a reconsideration of the destination of its type-specimen.

          Translated abstract

          Resumo O gênero Paratrygon, reconhecido atualmente como o único gênero monotípico da família Potamotrygonidae, possui uma considerável alta diversidade do que previamente indicado, incluindo estudos moleculares, que corroboravam P. aiereba (a única espécie reconhecida para o gênero até então) como um possível complexo de espécies. Aqui descrevemos duas novas espécies do gênero para a bacia do Orinoco, ambas endêmicas e simpátricas para esta bacia. Paratrygon aiereba, espécie tipo do gênero, agora está restrita para a bacia Amazônica. Ambas novas espécies são identificadas e definidas através de caracteres morfológicos tais como coloração, morfologia dos dentículos dérmicos, arranjo dos espinhos pontiagudos, distribuição e morfologia dos canais ventrais da linha lateral, morfologia dos elementos do esqueleto e morfometria. Uma comparação extensiva destes caracteres entre as novas espécies aqui descritas e P. aiereba é apresentada. Finalmente uma reavaliação taxonômica de P. aiereba é fornecida através da revisão de espécimes preservados e de sua descrição original, além de novas evidências sobre sua possível localidade-tipo, coletores, e uma reconsideração do destino de seu espécime-tipo.

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          Most cited references 76

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          Enzyme clearing of alcian blue stained whole small vertebrates for demonstration of cartilage.

           G Dingerkus,  L Uhler (1977)
          Preparation of small vertebrates cleared after alcian blue staining of cartilage is facilitated by trypsin digestion. Specimens are fixed in formation, washed, skinned, and eviscerated. After staining in a solution of alcian blue in acetic acid-alcohol for 24-48 hours, they are transferred to water through graded alcohols. Excess alcian blue is removed over a period of up to three weeks by changes every 2-3 days of 1% trypsin in approximately one-third-saturated sodium borate. Bony tissues may be stained after this in a solution of alizarin red S in 0.5% KOH. Specimens are bleached if necessary and dehydrated through graded KOH-glycerine mixtures for storage in glycerine. Since alcohol treatment in addition to formalin fixation does not affect results with this method, it should be useful to researchers who want to study the cartilage or cartilaginous skeletons in museum specimens, which are routinely fixed in formalin and stored in alcohol.
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            Phyletic Relationships of Living Sharks and Rays

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              Os peixes de água doce do Brasil


                Author and article information

                Neotropical Ichthyology
                Neotrop. ichthyol.
                Sociedade Brasileira de Ictiologia (Maringá, PR, Brazil )
                : 19
                : 2
                João Pessoa orgnameUniversidade Federal da Paraíba orgdiv1Departamento de Sistemática e Ecologia (CCEN) Brazil rsrosa@ 123456dse.ufpb.br
                São Paulo São Paulo orgnameUniversidade de São Paulo orgdiv1Departamento de Zoologia orgdiv2Instituto de Biociências (IBUSP) Brazil
                São Paulo São Paulo orgnameUniversidade de São Paulo orgdiv1Departamento de Zoologia, Instituto de Biociências (IBUSP) Brazil
                Rio Branco Acre orgnameUniversidade Federal do Acre orgdiv1Centro de Ciências Biológicas e da Natureza (CCBN) Brazil loboda_bio@ 123456yahoo.com.br
                Bogotá DC orgnameInstituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humboldt Colombia classo@ 123456humboldt.org.co
                S1679-62252021000200202 S1679-6225(21)01900200202

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

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