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      Osteoclast differentiation factor is a ligand for osteoprotegerin/osteoclastogenesis-inhibitory factor and is identical to TRANCE/RANKL

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          The murine mutation osteopetrosis is in the coding region of the macrophage colony stimulating factor gene.

          Mice homozygous for the recessive mutation osteopetrosis (op) on chromosome 3 have a restricted capacity for bone remodelling, and are severely deficient in mature macrophages and osteoclasts. Both cell populations originate from a common haemopoietic progenitor. As op/op mice are not cured by transplants of normal bone marrow cells, the defects in op/op mice may be associated with an abnormal haematopoietic microenvironment rather than with an intrinsic defect in haematopoietic progenitors. To investigate the molecular and biochemical basis of the defects caused by the op mutation, we established primary fibroblast cell lines from op/op mice and tested the ability of these cell lines to support the proliferation of macrophage progenitors. We show that op/op fibroblasts are defective in production of functional macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF), although its messenger RNA (Csfm mRNA) is present at normal levels. This defect in M-CSF production and the recent mapping of the Csfm structural gene near op on chromosome 3 suggest that op is a mutation within the Csfm gene itself. We have sequenced Csfm complementary DNA prepared from op/op fibroblasts and found a single base pair insertion in the coding region of the Csfm gene that generates a stop codon 21 base pairs downstream. Thus, the op mutation is within the Csfm coding region and we conclude that the pathological changes in this mutant result from the absence of M-CSF.
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            Osteoblastic cells are involved in osteoclast formation.

            We developed a co-culture system with mouse spleen cells and osteoblastic cells to examine the role of osteoblasts in osteoclast formation. When mouse spleen cells and osteoblastic cells isolated from fetal mouse calvariae were co-cultured in the presence of 10 nM 1 alpha, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1 alpha,25(OH)2D3], numerous tartrate-resistant acid phosphate (TRACP)-positive mononuclear and multinucleated cells were formed within 8 days. Neither the same co-cultures without the vitamin nor separate cultures of either spleen cells or osteoblastic cells with the vitamin produced TRACP-positive cells. Salmon calcitonin (CT) markedly increased cAMP production in the co-cultures treated with 1 alpha,25(OH)2D3. Autoradiographic studies clearly demonstrated that [125I]-CT specifically bound to the TRACP-positive cells formed in the co-cultures with the vitamin. When spleen cells and osteoblastic cells were co-cultured on dentine slices in the presence of 1 alpha,25(OH)2D3, numerous resorption lacunae were formed on the slices. Neither co-cultures of alveolar macrophages and osteoblastic cells nor those of spleen cells and mouse skin-derived fibroblasts induced TRACP-positive cells even in the presence of 1 alpha,25(OH)2D3. When spleen cells and osteoblastic cells were cultured separately from each other by a membrane filter (0.45 micron), no TRACP-positive cells were formed. These results indicate that osteoblastic cells are required for the differentiation of osteoclast progenitors in splenic tissues into multinucleated osteoclasts.
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              Macrophage colony-stimulating factor is indispensable for both proliferation and differentiation of osteoclast progenitors.

              The mechanism of action of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) in osteoclast development was examined in a co-culture system of mouse osteoblastic cells and spleen cells. In this co-culture, osteoclast-like multinucleated cells (MNCs) were formed within 6 d in response to 10 nM 1 alpha,25(OH)2D3 added only for the final 2 d of culture. Simultaneously adding hydroxyurea for the final 2 d completely inhibited proliferation of cultured cells without affecting 1 alpha,25(OH)2D3-stimulated MNC formation. Autoradiographic examination using [3H]-thymidine revealed that osteoclast progenitors primarily proliferated during the first 4 d, whereas their differentiation into MNCs occurred predominantly during the final 2 d of culture in response to 1 alpha,25(OH)2D3. When anti-M-CSF antibody or anti-M-CSF receptor antibody was added either for the first 4 d or for the final 2 d, the MNC formation was similarly inhibited. In co-cultures of normal spleen cells and osteoblastic cells obtained from op/op mice, which cannot produce functionally active M-CSF, the lack of M-CSF either for the first 4 d or for the final 2 d failed to form MNCs in response to 1 alpha,25(OH)2D3 added for the last 2 d. These results clearly indicate that M-CSF is indispensable for both proliferation of osteoclast progenitors and their differentiation into mature osteoclasts.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
                Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
                Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
                0027-8424
                1091-6490
                March 31 1998
                March 31 1998
                : 95
                : 7
                : 3597-3602
                10.1073/pnas.95.7.3597
                © 1998
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