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      Multiple frequency bioimpedance is an adequate tool to assess total and regional fat mass in HIV-positive patients but not to diagnose HIV-associated lipoatrophy: a pilot study

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          HIV-associated lipodystrophy syndrome causes systemic metabolic alterations and psychological distress that worsen the quality of life of these patients. An early detection should be considered to efficiently treat it. Objective criteria or reference indices are needed for an early diagnosis. Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) is an operator-independent, repeatable and non-invasive method of body composition evaluation that is less expensive than dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and/or CT scans. The aims of this pilot study were to validate the data obtained by BIA to measure fat mass in HIV-positive patients with/without lipoatrophy and to determine if BIA correctly diagnoses lipoatrophy in HIV-positive patients.


          Thirty-nine participants were included in this preliminary study. Fourteen were HIV-negative (eight men) whereas 25 were HIV-positive patients (17 men). Eleven of the HIV-positive patients were classified as lipoatrophic according to subjective evaluation by the physicians. Total and regional body composition was measured in basal conditions by DXA and by BIA. To obtain abdominal CT scan fat values, transverse slices with 6-mm thickness were acquired at the L4-L5 intervertebral space.


          BIA measurements of total and regional body fat were significantly correlated with those obtained by DXA ( p < 0.05 to <0.01) in HIV-positive patients. However, agreement between methods was poor as not very high ICC (intraclass correlation coefficient) values were observed. BIA and DXA showed higher ICC values in lipoatrophic patients. The visceral index obtained by BIA was correlated with total and visceral fat in L4 measured by CT scan ( r = 0.607 and r = 0.617, respectively, p < 0.01) in HIV-positive patients. The Fat Mass Ratio (FMR) calculated by BIA did not correlate or agree with DXA values.


          Multi-frequency BIA could be an effective method to evaluate the evolution of total and regional fat composition in HIV-positive patients with/without lipoatrophy. The correlations between BIA and DXA improved in lipoatrophic patients and in men, suggesting that its efficacy depends on fat mass, gender and probably other factors. The visceral index obtained by BIA seems to be a reliable indicator of abdominal obesity. However, BIA did not fulfil the need for easy quantitative diagnostic tools for lipoatrophy, and it did not provide sufficient diagnostic cut-off values for this syndrome.

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          Most cited references 36

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          Intraclass correlations: uses in assessing rater reliability.

          Reliability coefficients often take the form of intraclass correlation coefficients. In this article, guidelines are given for choosing among six different forms of the intraclass correlation for reliability studies in which n target are rated by k judges. Relevant to the choice of the coefficient are the appropriate statistical model for the reliability and the application to be made of the reliability results. Confidence intervals for each of the forms are reviewed.
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            Mortality in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era: changing causes of death and disease in the HIV outpatient study.

            AIDS-related death and disease rates have declined in the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era and remain low; however, current causes of death in HAART-treated patients remain ill defined. To describe mortality trends and causes of death among HIV-infected patients in the HAART era. Prospective, multicenter, observational cohort study of participants in the HIV Outpatient Study who were treated from January 1996 through December 2004. Rates of death, opportunistic disease, and other non-AIDS-defining illnesses (NADIs) determined to be primary or secondary causes of death. Among 6945 HIV-infected patients followed for a median of 39.2 months, death rates fell from 7.0 deaths/100 person-years of observation in 1996 to 1.3 deaths/100 person-years in 2004 (P=0.008 for trend). Deaths that included AIDS-related causes decreased from 3.79/100 person-years in 1996 to 0.32/100 person-years in 2004 (P=0.008). Proportional increases in deaths involving liver disease, bacteremia/sepsis, gastrointestinal disease, non-AIDS malignancies, and renal disease also occurred (P=or<0.001, 0.017, 0.006, <0.001, and 0.037, respectively.) Hepatic disease was the only reported cause of death for which absolute rates increased over time, albeit not significantly, from 0.09/100 person-years in 1996 to 0.16/100 person-years in 2004 (P=0.10). The percentage of deaths due exclusively to NADI rose from 13.1% in 1996 to 42.5% in 2004 (P<0.001 for trend), the most frequent of which were cardiovascular, hepatic, and pulmonary disease, and non-AIDS malignancies in 2004. Mean CD4 cell counts closest to death (n=486 deaths) increased from 59 cells/microL in 1996 to 287 cells/microL in 2004 (P<0.001 for trend). Patients dying of NADI causes were more HAART experienced and initiated HAART at higher CD4 cell counts than those who died with AIDS (34.5% vs 16.8%, respectively, received HAART for 4 of more years, P<0.0001; 22.4% vs 7.8%, respectively, initiated HAART with CD4 cell counts of more than 350 cells/microL, P<0.001). Although overall death rates remained low through 2004, the proportion of deaths attributable to non-AIDS diseases increased and prominently included hepatic, cardiovascular, and pulmonary diseases, as well as non-AIDS malignancies. Longer time spent receiving HAART and higher CD4 cell counts at HAART initiation were associated with death from non-AIDS causes. CD4 cell count at time of death increased over time.
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              A syndrome of peripheral lipodystrophy, hyperlipidaemia and insulin resistance in patients receiving HIV protease inhibitors.

              To describe a syndrome of peripheral lipodystrophy (fat wasting of the face, limbs and upper trunk), hyperlipidaemia and insulin resistance in patients receiving potent HIV protease inhibitor therapy. Cross-sectional study. Outpatient clinic of a university teaching hospital. HIV-infected patients either receiving at least one protease inhibitor (n=116) or protease inhibitor-naive (n=32), and healthy men (n=47). Lipodystrophy was assessed by physical examination and questionnaire and body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Fasting triglyceride, cholesterol, free fatty acid, glucose, insulin, C-peptide and fructosamine levels, other metabolic parameters, CD4 lymphocyte counts, and HIV RNA load were also assessed. HIV protease inhibitor-naive patients had similar body composition to healthy men. HIV protease inhibitor therapy was associated with substantially lower total body fat (13.2 versus 18.7 kg in protease inhibitor-naive patients; P=0.005), and significantly higher total cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Lipodystrophy was observed clinically in 74 (64%) protease inhibitor recipients after a mean 13.9 months and 1(3%) protease inhibitor-naive patient (P=0.0001). Fat loss occurred in all regions except the abdomen after a median 10 months. Patients with lipodystrophy experienced a relative weight loss of 0.5 kg per month and had significantly higher triglyceride, cholesterol, insulin and C-peptide levels and were more insulin-resistant than protease inhibitor recipients without lipodystrophy. Patients receiving ritonavir and saquinavir in combination had significantly lower body fat, higher lipids and shorter time to lipodystrophy than patients receiving indinavir. Three (2%) patients developed new or worsening diabetes mellitus. A syndrome of peripheral lipodystrophy, hyperlipidaemia and insulin resistance is a common complication of HIV protease inhibitors. Diabetes mellitus is relatively uncommon.

                Author and article information

                J Int AIDS Soc
                J Int AIDS Soc
                Journal of the International AIDS Society
                International AIDS Society
                27 December 2013
                : 16
                : 1
                [1 ]HIV and Associated Metabolic Alterations Unit, Infectious Diseases Department, Center for Biomedical Research of La Rioja (CIBIR), Logroño, La Rioja, Spain
                [2 ]Infectious Diseases Department, Hospital San Pedro, Logroño, La Rioja, Spain
                [3 ]X-ray Diagnosis Service, Hospital San Pedro, Logroño, La Rioja, Spain
                [4 ]Department of Epidemiology, La Rioja Regional Authority, Logroño, La Rioja, Spain
                Author notes
                [§ ] Corresponding author: Patricia Pérez-Matute, HIV and Associated Metabolic Alterations Unit, Infectious Diseases department, Center for Biomedical Research of La Rioja (CIBIR), Piqueras, no. 98, 26006 Logroño, Spain. Tel: +34 941 278 867 ext. 84871. Fax: +34 941 278 887. ( cpperez@ )
                © 2013 Pérez-Matute P et al; licensee International AIDS Society

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Research Article


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