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      Genomic and transcriptomic insights into the efficient entomopathogenicity of Bacillus thuringiensis

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          Abstract

          Bacillus thuringiensis has been globally used as a microbial pesticide for over 70 years. However, information regarding its various adaptions and virulence factors and their roles in the entomopathogenic process remains limited. In this work, we present the complete genomes of two industrially patented Bacillus thuringiensis strains (HD-1 and YBT-1520). A comparative genomic analysis showed a larger and more complicated genome constitution that included novel insecticidal toxicity- related genes (ITRGs). All of the putative ITRGs were summarized according to the steps of infection. A comparative genomic analysis showed that highly toxic strains contained significantly more ITRGs, thereby providing additional strategies for infection, immune evasion, and cadaver utilization. Furthermore, a comparative transcriptomic analysis suggested that a high expression of these ITRGs was a key factor in efficient entomopathogenicity. We identified an active extra urease synthesis system in the highly toxic strains that may aid B. thuringiensis survival in insects (similar to previous results with well-known pathogens). Taken together, these results explain the efficient entomopathogenicity of B. thuringiensis. It provides novel insights into the strategies used by B. thuringiensis to resist and overcome host immune defenses and helps identify novel toxicity factors.

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          Most cited references 56

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          Bacillus thuringiensis and its pesticidal crystal proteins.

          During the past decade the pesticidal bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis has been the subject of intensive research. These efforts have yielded considerable data about the complex relationships between the structure, mechanism of action, and genetics of the organism's pesticidal crystal proteins, and a coherent picture of these relationships is beginning to emerge. Other studies have focused on the ecological role of the B. thuringiensis crystal proteins, their performance in agricultural and other natural settings, and the evolution of resistance mechanisms in target pests. Armed with this knowledge base and with the tools of modern biotechnology, researchers are now reporting promising results in engineering more-useful toxins and formulations, in creating transgenic plants that express pesticidal activity, and in constructing integrated management strategies to insure that these products are utilized with maximum efficiency and benefit.
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            Purification of RNA using TRIzol (TRI reagent).

            TRIzol solubilization and extraction is a relatively recently developed general method for deproteinizing RNA. This method is particularly advantageous in situations where cells or tissues are enriched for endogenous RNases or when separation of cytoplasmic RNA from nuclear RNA is impractical. TRIzol (or TRI Reagent) is a monophasic solution of phenol and guanidinium isothiocyanate that simultaneously solubilizes biological material and denatures protein. After solubilization, the addition of chloroform causes phase separation (much like extraction with phenol:chloroform:isoamyl alcohol), where protein is extracted to the organic phase, DNA resolves at the interface, and RNA remains in the aqueous phase. Therefore, RNA, DNA, and protein can be purified from a single sample (hence, the name TRIzol). TRIzol extraction is also an effective method for isolating small RNAs, such as microRNAs, piwi-associated RNAs, or endogeneous, small interfering RNAs. However, TRIzol is expensive and RNA pellets can be difficult to resuspend. Thus, the use of TRIzol is not recommend when regular phenol extraction is practical.
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              Genome sequence of Bacillus cereus and comparative analysis with Bacillus anthracis.

              Bacillus cereus is an opportunistic pathogen causing food poisoning manifested by diarrhoeal or emetic syndromes. It is closely related to the animal and human pathogen Bacillus anthracis and the insect pathogen Bacillus thuringiensis, the former being used as a biological weapon and the latter as a pesticide. B. anthracis and B. thuringiensis are readily distinguished from B. cereus by the presence of plasmid-borne specific toxins (B. anthracis and B. thuringiensis) and capsule (B. anthracis). But phylogenetic studies based on the analysis of chromosomal genes bring controversial results, and it is unclear whether B. cereus, B. anthracis and B. thuringiensis are varieties of the same species or different species. Here we report the sequencing and analysis of the type strain B. cereus ATCC 14579. The complete genome sequence of B. cereus ATCC 14579 together with the gapped genome of B. anthracis A2012 enables us to perform comparative analysis, and hence to identify the genes that are conserved between B. cereus and B. anthracis, and the genes that are unique for each species. We use the former to clarify the phylogeny of the cereus group, and the latter to determine plasmid-independent species-specific markers.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group
                2045-2322
                28 September 2015
                2015
                : 5
                Affiliations
                [1 ]State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University , Wuhan, Hubei, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Article
                srep14129
                10.1038/srep14129
                4585936
                26411888
                Copyright © 2015, Macmillan Publishers Limited

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in the credit line; if the material is not included under the Creative Commons license, users will need to obtain permission from the license holder to reproduce the material. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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