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      A Review of Attacks, Vulnerabilities, and Defenses in Industry 4.0 with New Challenges on Data Sovereignty Ahead

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          Abstract

          The concepts brought by Industry 4.0 have been explored and gradually applied.The cybersecurity impacts on the progress of Industry 4.0 implementations and their interactions with other technologies require constant surveillance, and it is important to forecast cybersecurity-related challenges and trends to prevent and mitigate these impacts. The contributions of this paper are as follows: (1) it presents the results of a systematic review of industry 4.0 regarding attacks, vulnerabilities and defense strategies, (2) it details and classifies the attacks, vulnerabilities and defenses mechanisms, and (3) it presents a discussion of recent challenges and trends regarding cybersecurity-related areas for Industry 4.0. From the systematic review, regarding the attacks, the results show that most attacks are carried out on the network layer, where dos-related and mitm attacks are the most prevalent ones. Regarding vulnerabilities, security flaws in services and source code, and incorrect validations in authentication procedures are highlighted. These are vulnerabilities that can be exploited by dos attacks and buffer overflows in industrial devices and networks. Regarding defense strategies, Blockchain is presented as one of the most relevant technologies under study in terms of defense mechanisms, thanks to its ability to be used in a variety of solutions, from Intrusion Detection Systems to the prevention of Distributed dos attacks, and most defense strategies are presented as an after-attack solution or prevention, in the sense that the defense mechanisms are only placed or thought, only after the harm has been done, and not as a mitigation strategy to prevent the cyberattack. Concerning challenges and trends, the review shows that digital sovereignty, cyber sovereignty, and data sovereignty are recent topics being explored by researchers within the Industry 4.0 scope, and GAIA-X and International Data Spaces are recent initiatives regarding data sovereignty. A discussion of trends is provided, and future challenges are pointed out.

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          Most cited references132

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          Industry 4.0: state of the art and future trends

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            Literature review of Industry 4.0 and related technologies

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Academic Editor
                Journal
                Sensors (Basel)
                Sensors (Basel)
                sensors
                Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)
                MDPI
                1424-8220
                30 July 2021
                August 2021
                : 21
                : 15
                : 5189
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Instituto Politécnico de Viana do Castelo, 4900-347 Viana do Castelo, Portugal; vitorpedreira@ 123456ipvc.pt (V.P.); danielbarros@ 123456ipvc.pt (D.B.)
                [2 ]Universidade da Maia, 4475-690 Maia, Portugal
                [3 ]INESC TEC, 4200-465 Porto, Portugal
                Author notes
                Author information
                https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1435-8487
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1107-8482
                https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1856-6101
                Article
                sensors-21-05189
                10.3390/s21155189
                8347485
                34372425
                e3043850-2fa6-47a5-99ca-74ecb1e8d53c
                © 2021 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                History
                : 22 June 2021
                : 26 July 2021
                Categories
                Review

                Biomedical engineering
                cybersecurity,attacks,defenses,industry 4.0,vulnerabilities,survey,data sovereignty
                Biomedical engineering
                cybersecurity, attacks, defenses, industry 4.0, vulnerabilities, survey, data sovereignty

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