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      Elimination of Electrically Induced Iontophoretic Artefacts: Implications for Non-Invasive Assessment of Peripheral Microvascular Function

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          Abstract

          Iontophoretic assessment of skin microvascular function is complicated by the occurrence of electrically induced hyperaemia, especially at the cathode. Studies were performed to identify means of reducing such effects. Skin vasodilator responses were measured using a laser Doppler imager that controlled iontophoretic current delivery. A novel feature involved monitoring voltage across the iontophoresis chambers. Comparison between responses to vehicle (distilled H<sub>2</sub>O), acetylcholine (ACh) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) showed electrically induced hyperaemia at the cathode associated with the vehicle, whose time course overlapped with that of the SNP response. Voltage across the chambers containing drugs dissolved in H<sub>2</sub>O was significantly (p = 0.018, n = 7) lower than the voltage profile of H<sub>2</sub>O alone. H<sub>2</sub>O iontophoresis was associated with cathodal hyperaemic responses in most subjects, whereas a 0.5% NaCl vehicle produced lower voltages and eliminated this artefact. Voltage·time integral rather than charge was the prime determinant of electrically induced hyperaemic responses. No significant correlation was found between skin fold thickness and either calculated skin resistance (r<sup>2</sup> = 0.0002) or vascular response to ACh (r<sup>2</sup> = 0.13). Smaller chamber size led to higher voltages and greater electrically induced hyperaemic responses. These appear to be prostaglandin dependent as they were ablated by cyclooxygenase inhibition. Use of a low-resistance vehicle combined with larger chamber sizes and lower currents can prevent such artefacts, thereby increasing the robustness of this methodology for clinical assessment of endothelial function.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          JVR
          J Vasc Res
          10.1159/issn.1018-1172
          Journal of Vascular Research
          S. Karger AG
          1018-1172
          1423-0135
          2002
          October 2002
          18 September 2002
          : 39
          : 5
          : 447-455
          Affiliations
          Departments of aMedicine, bObstetrics and Gynaecology, and cPathological Biochemistry, Royal Infirmary, Glasgow, and dDivision of Biological Sciences, University of Paisley, Paisley, UK
          Article
          64515 J Vasc Res 2002;39:447–455
          10.1159/000064515
          12297707
          © 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

          Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

          Page count
          Figures: 6, References: 18, Pages: 9
          Categories
          Research Paper

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