Blog
About

5
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: not found
      • Article: not found

      Low  -defensin gene copy number increases the risk for IgA nephropathy and renal dysfunction

      Read this article at

      ScienceOpenPublisherPubMed
      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Although a major source of genetic variation, copy number variations (CNVs) and their involvement in disease development have not been well studied. Immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) is the most common primary glomerulonephritis worldwide. We performed association analysis of the DEFA1A3 CNV locus in two independent IgAN cohorts of southern Chinese Han (total of 1189 cases and 1187 controls). We discovered three independent copy number associations within the locus: DEFA1A3 [P = 3.99 × 10(-9); odds ratio (OR), 0.88], DEFA3 (P = 6.55 × 10(-5); OR, 0.82), and a noncoding deletion variant (211bp) (P = 3.50 × 10(-16); OR, 0.75) (OR per copy, fixed-effects meta-analysis). While showing strong association with an increased risk for IgAN (P = 9.56 × 10(-20)), low total copy numbers of the three variants also showed significant association with renal dysfunction in patients with IgAN (P = 0.03; hazards ratio, 3.69; after controlling for the effects of known prognostic factors) and also with increased serum IgA1 (P = 0.02) and galactose-deficient IgA1 (P = 0.03). For replication, we confirmed the associations of DEFA1A3 (P = 4.42 × 10(-4); OR, 0.82) and DEFA3 copy numbers (P = 4.30 × 10(-3); OR, 0.74) with IgAN in a Caucasian cohort (531 cases and 198 controls) and found the 211bp variant to be much rarer in Caucasians. We also observed an association of the 211bp copy number with membranous nephropathy (P = 1.11 × 10(-7); OR, 0.74; in 493 Chinese cases and 500 matched controls), but not with diabetic kidney disease (in 806 Chinese cases and 786 matched controls). By explaining 4.96% of disease risk and influencing renal dysfunction in patients with IgAN, the DEFA1A3 CNV locus may be a potential therapeutic target for developing treatments for this disease.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 35

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Defensins: antimicrobial peptides of innate immunity.

           Tomas Ganz (2003)
          The production of natural antibiotic peptides has emerged as an important mechanism of innate immunity in plants and animals. Defensins are diverse members of a large family of antimicrobial peptides, contributing to the antimicrobial action of granulocytes, mucosal host defence in the small intestine and epithelial host defence in the skin and elsewhere. This review, inspired by a spate of recent studies of defensins in human diseases and animal models, focuses on the biological function of defensins.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Genome-wide association study of copy number variation in 16,000 cases of eight common diseases and 3,000 shared controls

            Copy number variants (CNVs) account for a major proportion of human genetic polymorphism and have been predicted to play an important role in genetic susceptibility to common disease. To address this we undertook a large direct genome-wide study of association between CNVs and eight common human diseases. Using a purpose-designed array we typed ~19,000 individuals into distinct copy-number classes at 3,432 polymorphic CNVs, including an estimated ~50% of all common CNVs larger than 500bp. We identified several biological artefacts that lead to false-positive associations, including systematic CNV differences between DNAs derived from blood and cell-lines. Association testing and follow-up replication analyses confirmed three loci where CNVs were associated with disease, IRGM for Crohn's disease, HLA for Crohn's disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and type 1 diabetes, and TSPAN8 for type 2 diabetes, though in each case the locus had previously been identified in SNP-based studies, reflecting our observation that the majority of common CNVs which are well-typed on our array are well tagged by SNPs and so have been indirectly explored through SNP studies. We conclude that common CNVs which can be typed on existing platforms are unlikely to contribute greatly to the genetic basis of common human diseases.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Copy number polymorphism in Fcgr3 predisposes to glomerulonephritis in rats and humans.

              Identification of the genes underlying complex phenotypes and the definition of the evolutionary forces that have shaped eukaryotic genomes are among the current challenges in molecular genetics. Variation in gene copy number is increasingly recognized as a source of inter-individual differences in genome sequence and has been proposed as a driving force for genome evolution and phenotypic variation. Here we show that copy number variation of the orthologous rat and human Fcgr3 genes is a determinant of susceptibility to immunologically mediated glomerulonephritis. Positional cloning identified loss of the newly described, rat-specific Fcgr3 paralogue, Fcgr3-related sequence (Fcgr3-rs), as a determinant of macrophage overactivity and glomerulonephritis in Wistar Kyoto rats. In humans, low copy number of FCGR3B, an orthologue of rat Fcgr3, was associated with glomerulonephritis in the autoimmune disease systemic lupus erythematosus. The finding that gene copy number polymorphism predisposes to immunologically mediated renal disease in two mammalian species provides direct evidence for the importance of genome plasticity in the evolution of genetically complex phenotypes, including susceptibility to common human disease.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                Science Translational Medicine
                Science Translational Medicine
                American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
                1946-6234
                1946-6242
                June 29 2016
                June 29 2016
                : 8
                : 345
                : 345ra88
                Article
                10.1126/scitranslmed.aaf2106
                27358498
                © 2016

                Comments

                Comment on this article