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      Rapid relapse to smoking following hospital discharge

      brief-report

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          Abstract

          Many of nearly 7 million smokers who are hospitalized each year plan to stay quit after they leave the hospital. Most, however, relapse after discharge. This is a secondary analysis of a large Midwestern hospital-based smoking cessation trial that occurred between July 2011 and May 2013 to better understand how quickly smokers relapse and the predictors of rapid relapse. Of 942 participants who completed follow up, 25% returned to smoking within a day after hospital discharge. Among these rapid relapses, 36.6% relapsed within one-hour of leaving the hospital, 35.3% between one and 24 h, and 28.1% relapsed one-day post-discharge. Predictors with the highest odds for rapid relapse (within a day of hospital discharge) included tobacco use during hospitalization (OR, 7.37, [95% CI, 3.85–14.13], P < 0.01); low confidence for quitting (OR, 2.07, [95% CI, 1.49–2.88], P < 0.01); and not setting a quit date (OR, 1.76, [95% CI, 1.25–2.48], P < 0.01). Other significant predictors included higher nicotine dependence, shorter length of stay, and depression. Patients who are vulnerable to rapid relapse may benefit from policies that discourage leaving the hospital to smoke. In addition, hospital interventions that target smokers' confidence in quitting, encourage setting a quit date, and addressing nicotine dependence and depression may also be effective at supporting smoker's intentions to make their pre-admission cigarette their last.

          Clinical Trials Registration NCT01305928

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          Most cited references13

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          Self-efficacy and smoking cessation: a meta-analysis.

          According to relapse models, self-efficacy (SE), or confidence in one's ability to abstain, should predict the outcome of an attempt to quit smoking. We reviewed 54 studies that prospectively examined this relationship. The relationship between SE and future smoking depended upon the population studied and the timing of the SE assessment. The relationship between SE and future smoking was modest when SE was assessed prior to a quit attempt; SE scores were .21 standard deviation units (SD) higher for those not smoking at follow-up than for those who were smoking. The relationship was stronger (.47 SD) when SE was assessed post-quit. However, this effect was diminished when only abstainers at the time of the SE assessment were included in analysis (.28 SD). Controlling for smoking status at the time of SE assessment substantially reduced the relationship between SE and future smoking. Although SE has a reliable association with future abstinence, it is less robust than expected. Many studies may overestimate the relationship by failing to appropriately control for smoking behavior at the time of the SE assessment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).
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            Vital signs: current cigarette smoking among adults aged >or=18 years --- United States, 2009.

            (2010)
            Cigarette smoking continues to be the leading cause of preventable morbidity and mortality in the United States, causing approximately 443,000 premature deaths annually. The 2009 National Health Interview Survey and the 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System were used to estimate national and state adult smoking prevalence, respectively. Cigarette smokers were defined as adults aged ≥18 years who reported having smoked ≥100 cigarettes in their lifetime and now smoke every day or some days. In 2009, 20.6% of U.S. adults aged ≥18 years were current cigarette smokers. Men (23.5%) were more likely than women (17.9%) to be current smokers. The prevalence of smoking was 31.1% among persons below the federal poverty level. For adults aged ≥25 years, the prevalence of smoking was 28.5% among persons with less than a high school diploma, compared with 5.6% among those with a graduate degree. Regional differences were observed, with the West having the lowest prevalence (16.4%) and higher prevalences being observed in the South (21.8%) and Midwest (23.1%). From 2005 to 2009, the proportion of U.S. adults who were current cigarette smokers did not change (20.9% in 2005 and 20.6% in 2009). Previous declines in smoking prevalence in the United States have stalled during the past 5 years; the burden of cigarette smoking continues to be high, especially in persons living below the federal poverty level and with low educational attainment. Sustained, adequately funded, comprehensive tobacco control programs could reduce adult smoking. To further reduce disease and death from cigarette smoking, declines in cigarette smoking among adults must accelerate. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act is expected to expand access to evidence-based smoking-cessation services and treatments; this likely will result in additional use of these services and reductions of current smoking and its adverse effects among U.S. adults. Population-based prevention strategies such as tobacco taxes, media campaigns, and smoke-free policies, in concert with clinical cessation interventions, can help adults quit and prevent the uptake of tobacco use, furthering the reduction in the current prevalence of tobacco use in the United States across age groups.
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              Sustained care intervention and postdischarge smoking cessation among hospitalized adults: a randomized clinical trial.

              Health care systems need effective models to manage chronic diseases like tobacco dependence across transitions in care. Hospitalizations provide opportunities for smokers to quit, but research suggests that hospital-delivered interventions are effective only if treatment continues after discharge. To determine whether an intervention to sustain tobacco treatment after hospital discharge increases smoking cessation rates compared with standard care. A randomized clinical trial compared sustained care (a postdischarge tobacco cessation intervention) with standard care among 397 hospitalized daily smokers (mean age, 53 years; 48% were males; 81% were non-Hispanic whites) who wanted to quit smoking after discharge and received a tobacco dependence intervention in the hospital; 92% of eligible patients and 44% of screened patients enrolled. The study was conducted from August 2010 through November 2012 at Massachusetts General Hospital. Sustained care participants received automated interactive voice response telephone calls and their choice of free smoking cessation medication (any type approved by the US Food and Drug Administration) for up to 90 days. The automated telephone calls promoted cessation, provided medication management, and triaged smokers for additional counseling. Standard care participants received recommendations for postdischarge pharmacotherapy and counseling. The primary outcome was biochemically confirmed past 7-day tobacco abstinence at 6-month follow-up after discharge from the hospital; secondary outcomes included self-reported tobacco abstinence. Smokers randomly assigned to sustained care (n = 198) used more counseling and more pharmacotherapy at each follow-up assessment than those assigned to standard care (n = 199). Biochemically validated 7-day tobacco abstinence at 6 months was higher with sustained care (26%) than with standard care (15%) (relative risk [RR], 1.71 [95% CI, 1.14-2.56], P = .009; number needed to treat, 9.4 [95% CI, 5.4-35.5]). Using multiple imputation for missing outcomes, the RR for 7-day tobacco abstinence was 1.55 (95% CI, 1.03-2.21; P = .04). Sustained care also resulted in higher self-reported continuous abstinence rates for 6 months after discharge (27% vs 16% for standard care; RR, 1.70 [95% CI, 1.15-2.51]; P = .007). Among hospitalized adult smokers who wanted to quit smoking, a postdischarge intervention providing automated telephone calls and free medication resulted in higher rates of smoking cessation at 6 months compared with a standard recommendation to use counseling and medication after discharge. These findings, if replicated, suggest an approach to help achieve sustained smoking cessation after a hospital stay. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01177176.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Prev Med Rep
                Prev Med Rep
                Preventive Medicine Reports
                Elsevier
                2211-3355
                23 May 2019
                September 2019
                23 May 2019
                : 15
                Affiliations
                Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS, USA
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author at: Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of Kansas Medical Center, 3901 Rainbow Boulevard, Kansas City, KS 66160, USA. Lmussulman@ 123456kumc.edu
                Article
                S2211-3355(19)30070-1 100891
                10.1016/j.pmedr.2019.100891
                6543250
                31193919
                e32d4544-c52f-405e-8763-6c146205020d
                Published by Elsevier Inc.

                This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

                Categories
                Short Communication

                tobacco use disorder,health services,smoking cessation,hospitals

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