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      Purvalanol A, Olomoucine II and Roscovitine Inhibit ABCB1 Transporter and Synergistically Potentiate Cytotoxic Effects of Daunorubicin In Vitro

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          Abstract

          Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CDKi) have high potential applicability in anticancer therapy, but various aspects of their pharmacokinetics, especially their interactions with drug efflux transporters, have not yet been evaluated in detail. Thus, we investigated interactions of five CDKi (purvalanol A, olomoucine II, roscovitine, flavopiridol and SNS-032) with the ABCB1 transporter. Four of the compounds inhibited efflux of two ABCB1 substrates, Hoechst 33342 and daunorubicin, in MDCKII-ABCB1 cells: Olomoucine II most strongly, followed by roscovitine, purvalanol A, and flavopiridol. SNS-032 inhibited ABCB1-mediated efflux of Hoechst 33342 but not daunorubicin. In addition, purvalanol A, SNS-032 and flavopiridol lowered the stimulated ATPase activity in ABCB1 membrane preparations, while olomoucine II and roscovitine not only inhibited the stimulated ATPase but also significantly activated the basal ABCB1 ATPase, suggesting that these two CDKi are ABCB1 substrates. We further revealed that the strongest ABCB1 inhibitors (purvalanol A, olomoucine II and roscovitine) synergistically potentiate the antiproliferative effect of daunorubicin, a commonly used anticancer drug and ABCB1 substrate, in MDCKII-ABCB1 cells as well as in human carcinoma HCT-8 and HepG2 cells. We suggest that this pronounced synergism is at least partly caused by (i) CDKi-mediated inhibition of ABCB1 transporter leading to increased intracellular retention of daunorubicin and (ii) native cytotoxic activity of the CDKi. Our results indicate that co-administration of the tested CDKi with anticancer drugs that are ABCB1 substrates may allow significant dose reduction in the treatment of ABCB1-expressing tumors.

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          Most cited references 40

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          Quantitative analysis of dose-effect relationships: the combined effects of multiple drugs or enzyme inhibitors.

           P Talalay,  T C Chou (1984)
          A generalized method for analyzing the effects of multiple drugs and for determining summation, synergism and antagonism has been proposed. The derived, generalized equations are based on kinetic principles. The method is relatively simple and is not limited by whether the dose-effect relationships are hyperbolic or sigmoidal, whether the effects of the drugs are mutually exclusive or nonexclusive, whether the ligand interactions are competitive, noncompetitive or uncompetitive, whether the drugs are agonists or antagonists, or the number of drugs involved. The equations for the two most widely used methods for analyzing synergism, antagonism and summation of effects of multiple drugs, the isobologram and fractional product concepts, have been derived and been shown to have limitations in their applications. These two methods cannot be used indiscriminately. The equations underlying these two methods can be derived from a more generalized equation previously developed by us (59). It can be shown that the isobologram is valid only for drugs whose effects are mutually exclusive, whereas the fractional product method is valid only for mutually nonexclusive drugs which have hyperbolic dose-effect curves. Furthermore, in the isobol method, it is laborious to find proper combinations of drugs that would produce an iso-effective curve, and the fractional product method tends to give indication of synergism, since it underestimates the summation of the effect of mutually nonexclusive drugs that have sigmoidal dose-effect curves. The method described herein is devoid of these deficiencies and limitations. The simplified experimental design proposed for multiple drug-effect analysis has the following advantages: It provides a simple diagnostic plot (i.e., the median-effect plot) for evaluating the applicability of the data, and provides parameters that can be directly used to obtain a general equation for the dose-effect relation; the analysis which involves logarithmic conversion and linear regression can be readily carried out with a simple programmable electronic calculator and does not require special graph paper or tables; and the simplicity of the equation allows flexibility of application and the use of a minimum number of data points. This method has been used to analyze experimental data obtained from enzymatic, cellular and animal systems.
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            Membrane transporters in drug development.

            Membrane transporters can be major determinants of the pharmacokinetic, safety and efficacy profiles of drugs. This presents several key questions for drug development, including which transporters are clinically important in drug absorption and disposition, and which in vitro methods are suitable for studying drug interactions with these transporters. In addition, what criteria should trigger follow-up clinical studies, and which clinical studies should be conducted if needed. In this article, we provide the recommendations of the International Transporter Consortium on these issues, and present decision trees that are intended to help guide clinical studies on the currently recognized most important drug transporter interactions. The recommendations are generally intended to support clinical development and filing of a new drug application. Overall, it is advised that the timing of transporter investigations should be driven by efficacy, safety and clinical trial enrolment questions (for example, exclusion and inclusion criteria), as well as a need for further understanding of the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion properties of the drug molecule, and information required for drug labelling.
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              Biochemical, cellular, and pharmacological aspects of the multidrug transporter.

              Considerable evidence has accumulated indicating that the multidrug transporter or P-glycoprotein plays a role in the development of simultaneous resistance to multiple cytotoxic drugs in cancer cells. In recent years, various approaches such as mutational analyses and biochemical and pharmacological characterization have yielded significant information about the relationship of structure and function of P-glycoprotein. However, there is still considerable controversy about the mechanism of action of this efflux pump and its function in normal cells. This review summarizes current research on the structure-function analysis of P-glycoprotein, its mechanism of action, and facts and speculations about its normal physiological role.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS One
                PLoS ONE
                plos
                plosone
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, USA )
                1932-6203
                2013
                23 December 2013
                : 8
                : 12
                Affiliations
                [1]Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Kralove, Charles University in Prague, Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic
                Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Germany
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

                Conceived and designed the experiments: FS MC. Performed the experiments: DC JH. Analyzed the data: DC MC FS. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: FS. Wrote the paper: DC MC FS.

                Article
                PONE-D-13-30280
                10.1371/journal.pone.0083467
                3871618
                24376706
                e33de6a7-ce06-487b-8c26-4525e7eb2d9d

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Page count
                Pages: 11
                Funding
                Supported by grants 700912/C/2012 and SVV/2013/267-003 (Grant Agency of Charles University in Prague) and by the LÂ ´Oreal-UNESCO Scholarship for Women in Science 2013. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
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