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      Smoking-related interstitial fibrosis combined with pulmonary emphysema: computed tomography-pathologic correlative study using lobectomy specimens

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          To evaluate the incidence and pathologic correlation of thin-section computed tomography (TSCT) findings in smoking-related interstitial fibrosis (SRIF) with pulmonary emphysema.

          Patients and methods

          Our study included 172 consecutive patients who underwent TSCT and subsequent lobectomy. TSCT findings including clustered cysts with visible walls (CCVW) and ground-glass attenuation with/without reticulation (GGAR) were evaluated and compared in nonsmokers and smokers and among lung locations. TSCT findings, especially CCVW, were also compared with histological findings using lobectomy specimens.


          The incidence of CCVW and GGAR was significantly higher in smokers than in nonsmokers (34.1% and 40.7%, respectively, vs 2.0% and 12.2%). CCVW and GGAR were frequently found in the lower and peripheral zones. Histologically, CCVW corresponded more often with SRIF with emphysema than usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP, 63.3% vs 30%). CCVW of irregular size and shape were seen in 19 of 20 SRIF with emphysema and in seven of nine UIP-manifested areas with similar round cysts. A less-involved subpleural parenchyma was observed more frequently in SRIF with emphysema.


          SRIF with emphysema is a more frequent pathological finding than UIP in patients with CCVW on TSCT. The irregular size and shape of CCVW and a less-involved subpleural parenchyma may be a clue suggesting the presence of SRIF with emphysema.

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          Most cited references 18

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          Combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema: a distinct underrecognised entity.

          The syndrome resulting from combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema has not been comprehensively described. The current authors conducted a retrospective study of 61 patients with both emphysema of the upper zones and diffuse parenchymal lung disease with fibrosis of the lower zones of the lungs on chest computed tomography. Patients (all smokers) included 60 males and one female, with a mean age of 65 yrs. Dyspnoea on exertion was present in all patients. Basal crackles were found in 87% and finger clubbing in 43%. Pulmonary function tests were as follows (mean+/-sd): total lung capacity 88%+/-17, forced vital capacity (FVC) 88%+/-18, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) 80%+/-21 (% predicted), FEV1/FVC 69%+/-13, carbon monoxide diffusion capacity of the lung 37%+/-16 (% predicted), carbon monoxide transfer coefficient 46%+/-19. Pulmonary hypertension was present in 47% of patients at diagnosis, and 55% during follow-up. Patients were followed for a mean of 2.1+/-2.8 yrs from diagnosis. Survival was 87.5% at 2 yrs and 54.6% at 5 yrs, with a median of 6.1 yrs. The presence of pulmonary hypertension at diagnosis was a critical determinant of prognosis. The authors hereby individualise the computer tomography-defined syndrome of combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema characterised by subnormal spirometry, severe impairment of gas exchange, high prevalence of pulmonary hypertension, and poor survival.
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            Cigarette smoking: a risk factor for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

            We conducted a multicenter case-control study of clinically and histologically diagnosed idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), a chronic diffuse interstitial lung disease of unknown cause. The study included 248 cases, and 491 control subjects identified through random-digit dialing, matched to cases in sex, age, and geographic region. Telephone interviews were conducted with both cases and controls to collect information on potential risk factors for IPF, including smoking and household, occupational, and environmental exposures. Pulmonary function tests, X-rays, computed tomographic (CT) scans of the chest, and lung biopsy reports were submitted by referring centers to support the diagnoses. An a priori hypothesis that smoking is associated with IPF was examined with conditional logistic regression analyses. More cases (72%) than control subjects (63%) had a history of ever smoking. The odds ratio (OR) for ever smoking was 1.6 (95% CI: 1.1 to 2.4). Risk was significantly elevated for former smokers (OR = 1.9; 95% CI: 1.3 to 2.9) and for smokers with 21 to 40 pack-yr (OR = 2.3; 95% CI: 1.3 to 3.8). A history of smoking is associated with an increased risk for the development of IPF. Although there was no clear exposure-response pattern with cumulative consumption of cigarettes, there was a trend for time since cessation of smoking, with the highest risk for those who had most recently quit.
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              Combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema syndrome: a review.

              There is increasing clinical, radiologic, and pathologic recognition of the coexistence of emphysema and pulmonary fibrosis in the same patient, resulting in a clinical syndrome known as combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE) that is characterized by dyspnea, upper-lobe emphysema, lower-lobe fibrosis, and abnormalities of gas exchange. This syndrome frequently is complicated by pulmonary hypertension, acute lung injury, and lung cancer. The CPFE syndrome typically occurs in male smokers, and the mortality associated with this condition, especially if pulmonary hypertension is present, is significant. In this review, we explore the current state of the literature and discuss etiologic factors and clinical characteristics of the CPFE syndrome.

                Author and article information

                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                International Journal of COPD
                International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
                Dove Medical Press
                04 July 2016
                : 11
                : 1521-1532
                [1 ]Department of Radiology, Shiga University of Medical Science, Setatsukinowa-cho, Otsu, Shiga
                [2 ]Department of Pathology, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Sakamoto, Nagasaki
                [3 ]Department of Radiology, Yujin-Yamazaki Hospital, Takegahana-cho, Hikone, Shiga, Japan
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Hideji Otani, Department of Radiology, Shiga University of Medical Science, Setatsukinowa-cho, Otsu, Shiga 520-2192, Japan, Tel +81 77 548 2288, Fax +81 77 544 0986, Email otani@
                © 2016 Otani et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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