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      Bitter taste genetics – the relationship to tasting, liking, consumption and health

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          Abstract

          Bitter is the most complex, and arguably the most important of human tastes; however the complex relationships to health and disease are yet to be fully elucidated.

          Abstract

          Bitter is the most complex of human tastes, and is arguably the most important. Aversion to bitter taste is important for detecting toxic compounds in food; however, many beneficial nutrients also taste bitter and these may therefore also be avoided as a consequence of bitter taste. While many polymorphisms in TAS2R genes may result in phenotypic differences that influence the range and sensitivity of bitter compounds detected, the full extent to which individuals differ in their abilities to detect bitter compounds remains unknown. Simple logic suggests that taste phenotypes influence food preferences, intake and consequently health status. However, it is becoming clear that genetics only plays a partial role in predicting preference, intake and health outcomes, and the complex, pleiotropic relationships involved are yet to be fully elucidated.

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          Most cited references161

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          Six new loci associated with body mass index highlight a neuronal influence on body weight regulation.

          Common variants at only two loci, FTO and MC4R, have been reproducibly associated with body mass index (BMI) in humans. To identify additional loci, we conducted meta-analysis of 15 genome-wide association studies for BMI (n > 32,000) and followed up top signals in 14 additional cohorts (n > 59,000). We strongly confirm FTO and MC4R and identify six additional loci (P < 5 x 10(-8)): TMEM18, KCTD15, GNPDA2, SH2B1, MTCH2 and NEGR1 (where a 45-kb deletion polymorphism is a candidate causal variant). Several of the likely causal genes are highly expressed or known to act in the central nervous system (CNS), emphasizing, as in rare monogenic forms of obesity, the role of the CNS in predisposition to obesity.
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            The receptors and cells for mammalian taste.

            The emerging picture of taste coding at the periphery is one of elegant simplicity. Contrary to what was generally believed, it is now clear that distinct cell types expressing unique receptors are tuned to detect each of the five basic tastes: sweet, sour, bitter, salty and umami. Importantly, receptor cells for each taste quality function as dedicated sensors wired to elicit stereotypic responses.
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              Human receptors for sweet and umami taste.

              The three members of the T1R class of taste-specific G protein-coupled receptors have been hypothesized to function in combination as heterodimeric sweet taste receptors. Here we show that human T1R2/T1R3 recognizes diverse natural and synthetic sweeteners. In contrast, human T1R1/T1R3 responds to the umami taste stimulus l-glutamate, and this response is enhanced by 5'-ribonucleotides, a hallmark of umami taste. The ligand specificities of rat T1R2/T1R3 and T1R1/T1R3 correspond to those of their human counterparts. These findings implicate the T1Rs in umami taste and suggest that sweet and umami taste receptors share a common subunit.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                FFOUAI
                Food Funct.
                Food Funct.
                Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC)
                2042-6496
                2042-650X
                2014
                2014
                : 5
                : 12
                : 3040-3054
                Affiliations
                [1 ]School of Environmental and Life Sciences
                [2 ]University of Newcastle
                [3 ]Ourimbah, Australia
                [4 ]Food and Nutrition Flagship
                [5 ]CSIRO
                [6 ]School of Biomedical Sciences and Pharmacy
                [7 ]Teaching and Research Unit
                [8 ]Gosford, Australia
                [9 ]North Ryde, Australia
                Article
                10.1039/C4FO00539B
                25286017
                e348d236-6662-4c56-9c3d-c3beb6d3fa5f
                © 2014
                History

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