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      So close and yet so far — Molecular microbiology of Campylobacter fetus subspecies

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          Abstract

          Campylobacter fetus comprises two subspecies, C. fetus subsp. fetus and C. fetus subsp. venerealis, which are considered emerging pathogens in humans and animals. Comparisons at the genome level have revealed modest subspecies-specific variation; nevertheless, these two subspecies show distinct host and niche preferences. C. fetus subsp. fetus is a commensal and pathogen of domesticated animals that can be transmitted to humans via contaminated food. The clinical features of human infection can be severe, especially in impaired hosts. In contrast, C. fetus subsp. venerealis is a sexually transmitted pathogen essentially restricted to cattle. Infections leading to bovine venereal campylobacteriosis cause substantial economic losses due to abortion and infertility. Recent genome sequencing of the two subspecies has advanced our understanding of C. fetus adaptations through comparative genomics and the identification of subspecies-specific gene regions predicted to be involved in pathogenesis. The most striking difference between the subspecies is the highly subspecies-specific association of a pathogenicity island in the C. fetus subsp. venerealis chromosome. The inserted region encodes a Type 4 secretion system, which contributes to virulence properties of this organism in vitro. This review describes the main differences in epidemiological, phenotypic, and molecular characteristics of the two subspecies and summarizes recent advances towards understanding the molecular mechanisms of C. fetus pathogenesis.

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          Most cited references 101

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          Campylobacter jejuni Infections: update on emerging issues and trends.

           Tara M. Allos (2001)
          Infection with Campylobacter jejuni is one of the most common causes of gastroenteritis worldwide; it occurs more frequently than do infections caused by Salmonella species, Shigella species, or Escherichia coli O157:H7. In developed countries, the incidence of Campylobacter jejuni infections peaks during infancy and again during early adulthood. Most infections are acquired by the consumption and handling of poultry. A typical case is characterized by diarrhea, fever, and abdominal cramps. Obtaining cultures of the organism from stool samples remains the best way to diagnose this infection. An alarming recent trend is the rapid emergence of antimicrobial agent--resistant Campylobacter strains all over the world. Use of antibiotics in animals used for food has accelerated this trend. It is fortunate that complications of C. jejuni infections are rare, and most patients do not require antibiotics. Guillain-Barré syndrome is now recognized as a post-infectious complication of C. jejuni infection, but its incidence is <1 per 1000 infections. Careful food preparation and cooking practices may prevent some Campylobacter infections.
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            Biological diversity of prokaryotic type IV secretion systems.

            Type IV secretion systems (T4SS) translocate DNA and protein substrates across prokaryotic cell envelopes generally by a mechanism requiring direct contact with a target cell. Three types of T4SS have been described: (i) conjugation systems, operationally defined as machines that translocate DNA substrates intercellularly by a contact-dependent process; (ii) effector translocator systems, functioning to deliver proteins or other macromolecules to eukaryotic target cells; and (iii) DNA release/uptake systems, which translocate DNA to or from the extracellular milieu. Studies of a few paradigmatic systems, notably the conjugation systems of plasmids F, R388, RP4, and pKM101 and the Agrobacterium tumefaciens VirB/VirD4 system, have supplied important insights into the structure, function, and mechanism of action of type IV secretion machines. Information on these systems is updated, with emphasis on recent exciting structural advances. An underappreciated feature of T4SS, most notably of the conjugation subfamily, is that they are widely distributed among many species of gram-negative and -positive bacteria, wall-less bacteria, and the Archaea. Conjugation-mediated lateral gene transfer has shaped the genomes of most if not all prokaryotes over evolutionary time and also contributed in the short term to the dissemination of antibiotic resistance and other virulence traits among medically important pathogens. How have these machines adapted to function across envelopes of distantly related microorganisms? A survey of T4SS functioning in phylogenetically diverse species highlights the biological complexity of these translocation systems and identifies common mechanistic themes as well as novel adaptations for specialized purposes relating to the modulation of the donor-target cell interaction.
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              Ankyrin repeat proteins comprise a diverse family of bacterial type IV effectors.

              Specialized secretion systems are used by many bacteria to deliver effector proteins into host cells that can either mimic or disrupt the function of eukaryotic factors. We found that the intracellular pathogens Legionella pneumophila and Coxiella burnetii use a type IV secretion system to deliver into eukaryotic cells a large number of different bacterial proteins containing ankyrin repeat homology domains called Anks. The L. pneumophila AnkX protein prevented microtubule-dependent vesicular transport to interfere with fusion of the L. pneumophila-containing vacuole with late endosomes after infection of macrophages, which demonstrates that Ank proteins have effector functions important for bacterial infection of eukaryotic host cells.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                1886
                122234
                European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
                EuJMI
                Akadémiai Kiadó, co-published with Springer Science+Business Media B.V., Formerly Kluwer Academic Publishers B.V.
                2062-509X
                2062-8633
                1 March 2012
                : 2
                : 1
                : 66-75
                Affiliations
                [ 1 ] Institute of Pathology, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria
                [ 2 ] Institute of Molecular Biosciences, University of Graz, Graz, Austria
                [ 3 ] Institute of Molecular Biosciences, University of Graz, Humboldtstrasse 50/I, A-8010, Graz, Austria
                [ 4 ] Institute of Pathology, Medical University of Graz, Auenbruggerplatz 25, A-8036, Graz, Austria
                Author notes
                [* ] +43 316 380 5624, +43 316 380 9019, ellen.zechner@ 123456uni-graz.at
                [** ] +43 316 385 83649, +43 316 385 3432, gregor.gorkiewicz@ 123456medunigraz.at
                Article
                10
                10.1556/EuJMI.2.2012.1.10
                3933992
                24611123
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