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      Modulation of intestinal cell differentiation in growing pigs is dependent on the fiber source in the diet1

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          Most cited references 53

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          Adult intestinal stem cells: critical drivers of epithelial homeostasis and regeneration.

           Nick Barker (2014)
          Small populations of adult stem cells are responsible for the remarkable ability of the epithelial lining of the intestine to be efficiently renewed and repaired throughout life. The recent discovery of specific markers for these stem cells, together with the development of new technologies to track endogenous stem cell activity in vivo and to exploit their ability to generate new epithelia ex vivo, has greatly improved our understanding of stem cell-driven homeostasis, regeneration and cancer in the intestine. These exciting new insights into the biology of intestinal stem cells have the potential to accelerate the development of stem cell-based therapies and ameliorate cancer treatments.
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            Cis elements of the villin gene control expression in restricted domains of the vertical (crypt) and horizontal (duodenum, cecum) axes of the intestine.

            Villin, an actin bundling protein found in the apical brush border of absorptive tissues, is one of the first structural genes to be transcriptionally activated in the embryonic intestinal endoderm. In the adult, villin is broadly expressed in every cell of the intestinal epithelium on both the vertical axis (crypt to villus tip) and the horizontal axis (duodenum through colon) of the intestine. Here, we document that a 12.4-kilobase region of the mouse villin gene drives high level expression of two different reporter genes (LacZ and Cre recombinase) within the entire intestinal epithelium of transgenic mice. Deletion of a portion of this transgene results in reduction of beta-galactosidase activity in restricted domains of the small intestine (duodenum) and large intestine (cecum). In addition, expression is reduced in the crypt compartment throughout the intestine. Thus, the global expression pattern of villin in the intestine is apparently the consequence of an amalgam of distinct and individual domain-specific control processes. That is, expression of villin in the duodenum and cecum requires different regulatory sequences than the rest of the intestine, and the expression of villin in crypts is regulated by different circuitry than expression of villin on villus tips.
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              The intestinal stem cell.

              The epithelium of the adult mammalian intestine is in a constant dialog with its underlying mesenchyme to direct progenitor proliferation, lineage commitment, terminal differentiation, and, ultimately, cell death. The epithelium is shaped into spatially distinct compartments that are dedicated to each of these events. While the intestinal epithelium represents the most vigorously renewing adult tissue in mammals, the stem cells that fuel this self-renewal process have been identified only recently. The unique epithelial anatomy makes the intestinal crypt one of the most accessible models for the study of adult stem cell biology. This review attempts to provide a comprehensive overview of four decades of research on crypt stem cells.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Animal Science
                American Society of Animal Science (ASAS)
                0021-8812
                1525-3163
                March 2017
                March 01 2017
                March 2017
                March 01 2017
                : 95
                : 3
                : 1179-1190
                Article
                10.2527/jas.2016.0947
                e34c98d0-0f3a-4f49-99a3-0751e1d5ca5c
                © 2017

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