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      Malleability, plasticity, and individuality: How children learn and develop in context1

      1 , 2 , 3 , 3 , 1 , 2 , 4
      Applied Developmental Science
      Informa UK Limited

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          Making sense of the meaning literature: an integrative review of meaning making and its effects on adjustment to stressful life events.

          Interest in meaning and meaning making in the context of stressful life events continues to grow, but research is hampered by conceptual and methodological limitations. Drawing on current theories, the author first presents an integrated model of meaning making. This model distinguishes between the constructs of global and situational meaning and between "meaning-making efforts" and "meaning made," and it elaborates subconstructs within these constructs. Using this model, the author reviews the empirical research regarding meaning in the context of adjustment to stressful events, outlining what has been established to date and evaluating the strengths and weaknesses of current empirical work. Results suggest that theory on meaning and meaning making has developed apace, but empirical research has failed to keep up with these developments, creating a significant gap between the rich but abstract theories and empirical tests of them. Given current empirical findings, some aspects of the meaning-making model appear to be well supported but others are not, and the quality of meaning-making efforts and meanings made may be at least as important as their quantity. This article concludes with specific suggestions for future research.
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            Resilience and development: Contributions from the study of children who overcome adversity

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              The development of competence in favorable and unfavorable environments. Lessons from research on successful children.

              The development of competence holds great interest for parents and society alike. This article considers implications from research on competence and resilience in children and adolescents for policy and interventions designed to foster better outcomes among children at risk. Foundations of competence in early development are discussed, focusing on the role of attachment relationships and self-regulation. Results from studies of competence in the domains of peer relations, conduct, school, work, and activities are highlighted. Lessons are drawn from studies of naturally occurring resilience among children at risk because of disadvantage or trauma and also from efforts to deliberately alter the course of competence through early childhood education and preventive interventions. Converging evidence suggests that the same powerful adaptive systems protect development in both favorable and unfavorable environments.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Applied Developmental Science
                Applied Developmental Science
                Informa UK Limited
                1088-8691
                1532-480X
                January 24 2018
                January 24 2018
                : 1-31
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Turnaround for Children
                [2 ] Harvard Graduate School of Education
                [3 ] American Institutes for Research
                [4 ] Center for Individual Opportunity
                Article
                10.1080/10888691.2017.1398649
                e35d3fd6-70e3-4718-b45e-d24bc0475429
                © 2018
                History

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