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      Species delimitation of Margattea cockroaches from China, with seven new species (Blattodea, Ectobiidae, Pseudophyllodromiinae)

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          Abstract

          Nearly 450 Margattea specimens were collected from 27 locations in China and their morphology was examined. Then 68 Margattea COI sequences were obtained and used to carry out phylogenetic analyses as well as species delimitation analyses using General Mixed Yule Coalescent (GMYC), Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery (ABGD), and Poisson Tree Processes (bPTP). GMYC analysis resulted in 21 molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTUs) (confidence interval: 20–22), which was completely consistent with the result of the bPTP. There were 15 MOTUs using the ABGD method. The number of MOTUs was slightly different from the assigned morphospecies (16). As to the incongruence between molecular and morphological results, we checked the specimens again and made sure that most morphological differences were determined to be intraspecific differences (except the difference between M. angusta and M. mckittrickae ), although a large genetic distance existed. Finally, 16 Margattea species from China were defined in this study, of which, seven new species are established, i.e. Margattea deltodonta J-J He & Z-Q Wang, sp. nov., Margattea cuspidata J-J He & Z-Q Wang, sp. nov., Margattea caudata J-J He & Z-Q Wang, sp. nov., Margattea paratransversa J-J He & Z-Q Wang, sp. nov., Margattea disparilis J-J He & Z-Q Wang, sp. nov., Margattea transversa J-J He & Z-Q Wang, sp. nov., and Margattea bicruris J-J He & Z-Q Wang, sp. nov.

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          Most cited references 22

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          MEGA7: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis Version 7.0 for Bigger Datasets.

          We present the latest version of the Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis (Mega) software, which contains many sophisticated methods and tools for phylogenomics and phylomedicine. In this major upgrade, Mega has been optimized for use on 64-bit computing systems for analyzing larger datasets. Researchers can now explore and analyze tens of thousands of sequences in Mega The new version also provides an advanced wizard for building timetrees and includes a new functionality to automatically predict gene duplication events in gene family trees. The 64-bit Mega is made available in two interfaces: graphical and command line. The graphical user interface (GUI) is a native Microsoft Windows application that can also be used on Mac OS X. The command line Mega is available as native applications for Windows, Linux, and Mac OS X. They are intended for use in high-throughput and scripted analysis. Both versions are available from www.megasoftware.net free of charge.
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            DNA primers for amplification of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I from diverse metazoan invertebrates.

            We describe "universal" DNA primers for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of a 710-bp fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene (COI) from 11 invertebrate phyla: Echinodermata, Mollusca, Annelida, Pogonophora, Arthropoda, Nemertinea, Echiura, Sipuncula, Platyhelminthes, Tardigrada, and Coelenterata, as well as the putative phylum Vestimentifera. Preliminary comparisons revealed that these COI primers generate informative sequences for phylogenetic analyses at the species and higher taxonomic levels.
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              A rapid bootstrap algorithm for the RAxML Web servers.

              Despite recent advances achieved by application of high-performance computing methods and novel algorithmic techniques to maximum likelihood (ML)-based inference programs, the major computational bottleneck still consists in the computation of bootstrap support values. Conducting a probably insufficient number of 100 bootstrap (BS) analyses with current ML programs on large datasets-either with respect to the number of taxa or base pairs-can easily require a month of run time. Therefore, we have developed, implemented, and thoroughly tested rapid bootstrap heuristics in RAxML (Randomized Axelerated Maximum Likelihood) that are more than an order of magnitude faster than current algorithms. These new heuristics can contribute to resolving the computational bottleneck and improve current methodology in phylogenetic analyses. Computational experiments to assess the performance and relative accuracy of these heuristics were conducted on 22 diverse DNA and AA (amino acid), single gene as well as multigene, real-world alignments containing 125 up to 7764 sequences. The standard BS (SBS) and rapid BS (RBS) values drawn on the best-scoring ML tree are highly correlated and show almost identical average support values. The weighted RF (Robinson-Foulds) distance between SBS- and RBS-based consensus trees was smaller than 6% in all cases (average 4%). More importantly, RBS inferences are between 8 and 20 times faster (average 14.73) than SBS analyses with RAxML and between 18 and 495 times faster than BS analyses with competing programs, such as PHYML or GARLI. Moreover, this performance improvement increases with alignment size. Finally, we have set up two freely accessible Web servers for this significantly improved version of RAxML that provide access to the 200-CPU cluster of the Vital-IT unit at the Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics and the 128-CPU cluster of the CIPRES project at the San Diego Supercomputer Center. These Web servers offer the possibility to conduct large-scale phylogenetic inferences to a large part of the community that does not have access to, or the expertise to use, high-performance computing resources.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Zookeys
                Zookeys
                2
                urn:lsid:arphahub.com:pub:45048D35-BB1D-5CE8-9668-537E44BD4C7E
                urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:91BD42D4-90F1-4B45-9350-EEF175B1727A
                ZooKeys
                Pensoft Publishers
                1313-2989
                1313-2970
                2021
                10 May 2021
                : 1036
                : 121-151
                Affiliations
                [1 ] College of Plant Protection, Southwest University, Beibei, Chongqing 400715, China Southwest University Chongqing China
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Zong-Qing Wang ( zqwang2006@ 123456126.com )

                Academic editor: F. Legendre

                Article
                63232
                10.3897/zookeys.1036.63232
                8128847
                Jia-Jun He, Du-Ting Jin, Yi-Shu Wang, Yan-Li Che, Zong-Qing Wang

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Categories
                Research Article
                Blattodea
                Systematics
                World

                Animal science & Zoology

                intraspecific difference, morphology, cockroaches, coi, gmyc, abgd, bptp

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