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      Selected nutritional habits of teenagers associated with overweight and obesity

      , 1 , 2

      PeerJ

      PeerJ Inc.

      Nutritional habits, Diet, Youth, Overweight and obesity

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          Abstract

          Introduction

          A balanced diet is at the heart of healthy growth and development of children and youth, whereas inappropriate eating habits considerably influence the incidence of disorders connected with nutrition, including overweight and obesity. This paper aims at studying nutritional factors of 18-year-old secondary school youth in the urban environment and their effect on the incidence of overweight and obesity.

          Materials and methods

          The survey was conducted among 1,999 secondary school students chosen at random. The research tool consisted an original survey questionnaire. The measurements of respondents’ height and body mass provided data for calculating the body mass index.

          Results and conclusion

          The percentage of youth with deficient body mass was estimated at 8.4%. The percentage of normal weight students in the surveyed group was estimated at 77.6%. Overweight and obesity characterized 14.0% of the total number. As many as 21.8% of overweight and obese respondents would eat one or two meals as opposed to 16.8% of normal weight students. Three-fourths of the surveyed students would eat breakfast regardless of their nutritional habits. Lunch is eaten by 52.9% of normal weight 18-year-olds and 46.1% of overweight and obese students. The analysis of mealtimes suggests that overweight and obese students would have their breakfast and dinner at later hours than the rest of the surveyed. More than half of the participating students failed to eat lunch (53.9%), and one in four students within this group resigned from supper. Girls would eat fruit and vegetables more frequently than boys several times a day. The percentage of persons in the surveyed groups who would eat fast foods on a daily basis was similar regardless of their nutritional status. Sweetened carbonated beverages would be drunk more often by overweight and obese boys (81.2%) as compared with boys with proper body mass (75.8%). The same type of beverages would be popular with two-thirds of girls, and this result was similar regardless of their nutritional status. About 44.2% of overweight and obese girls and 20% of girls with proper body mass attempted to lose weight, and 5.7% of boys tried to go on a diet. Eating limitations were declared by 16.5% of overweight and obese boys and ca. 3% of normal weight boys.

          Conclusion

          Within the surveyed group of youth, it was possible to indicate eating errors primarily consisting in irregular eating, too low a number of meals during the day, particularly skipping breakfast, which took place more frequently among overweight and obese students rather than normal weight ones. The survey points to the insufficient intake of vegetables and fruit as opposed to salty and sweet meals. It is essential to convey the knowledge on the causes of overweight and obesity as well as rules of a healthy diet as factors preventing civilization diseases.

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          Most cited references 41

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          Global, regional, and national prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adults during 1980-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013.

          In 2010, overweight and obesity were estimated to cause 3·4 million deaths, 3·9% of years of life lost, and 3·8% of disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) worldwide. The rise in obesity has led to widespread calls for regular monitoring of changes in overweight and obesity prevalence in all populations. Comparable, up-to-date information about levels and trends is essential to quantify population health effects and to prompt decision makers to prioritise action. We estimate the global, regional, and national prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adults during 1980-2013. We systematically identified surveys, reports, and published studies (n=1769) that included data for height and weight, both through physical measurements and self-reports. We used mixed effects linear regression to correct for bias in self-reports. We obtained data for prevalence of obesity and overweight by age, sex, country, and year (n=19,244) with a spatiotemporal Gaussian process regression model to estimate prevalence with 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs). Worldwide, the proportion of adults with a body-mass index (BMI) of 25 kg/m(2) or greater increased between 1980 and 2013 from 28·8% (95% UI 28·4-29·3) to 36·9% (36·3-37·4) in men, and from 29·8% (29·3-30·2) to 38·0% (37·5-38·5) in women. Prevalence has increased substantially in children and adolescents in developed countries; 23·8% (22·9-24·7) of boys and 22·6% (21·7-23·6) of girls were overweight or obese in 2013. The prevalence of overweight and obesity has also increased in children and adolescents in developing countries, from 8·1% (7·7-8·6) to 12·9% (12·3-13·5) in 2013 for boys and from 8·4% (8·1-8·8) to 13·4% (13·0-13·9) in girls. In adults, estimated prevalence of obesity exceeded 50% in men in Tonga and in women in Kuwait, Kiribati, Federated States of Micronesia, Libya, Qatar, Tonga, and Samoa. Since 2006, the increase in adult obesity in developed countries has slowed down. Because of the established health risks and substantial increases in prevalence, obesity has become a major global health challenge. Not only is obesity increasing, but no national success stories have been reported in the past 33 years. Urgent global action and leadership is needed to help countries to more effectively intervene. Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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            Global nutrition transition and the pandemic of obesity in developing countries.

            Decades ago, discussion of an impending global pandemic of obesity was thought of as heresy. But in the 1970s, diets began to shift towards increased reliance upon processed foods, increased away-from-home food intake, and increased use of edible oils and sugar-sweetened beverages. Reductions in physical activity and increases in sedentary behavior began to be seen as well. The negative effects of these changes began to be recognized in the early 1990s, primarily in low- and middle-income populations, but they did not become clearly acknowledged until diabetes, hypertension, and obesity began to dominate the globe. Now, rapid increases in the rates of obesity and overweight are widely documented, from urban and rural areas in the poorest countries of sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia to populations in countries with higher income levels. Concurrent rapid shifts in diet and activity are well documented as well. An array of large-scale programmatic and policy measures are being explored in a few countries; however, few countries are engaged in serious efforts to prevent the serious dietary challenges being faced. © 2012 International Life Sciences Institute.
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              Long-term impact of overweight and obesity in childhood and adolescence on morbidity and premature mortality in adulthood: systematic review.

              The last systematic review on the health consequences of child and adolescent obesity found little evidence on consequences for adult health. The present study aimed to summarize evidence on the long-term impact of child and adolescent obesity for premature mortality and physical morbidity in adulthood. Systematic review with evidence searched from January 2002 to June 2010. Studies were included if they contained a measure of overweight and/or obesity between birth and 18 years (exposure measure) and premature mortality and physical morbidity (outcome) in adulthood. Five eligible studies examined associations between overweight and/or obesity, and premature mortality: 4/5 found significantly increased risk of premature mortality with child and adolescent overweight or obesity. All 11 studies with cardiometabolic morbidity as outcomes reported that overweight and obesity were associated with significantly increased risk of later cardiometabolic morbidity (diabetes, hypertension, ischaemic heart disease, and stroke) in adult life, with hazard ratios ranging from 1.1-5.1. Nine studies examined associations of child or adolescent overweight and obesity with other adult morbidity: studies of cancer morbidity were inconsistent; child and adolescent overweight and obesity were associated with significantly increased risk of later disability pension, asthma, and polycystic ovary syndrome symptoms. A relatively large and fairly consistent body of evidence now demonstrates that overweight and obesity in childhood and adolescence have adverse consequences on premature mortality and physical morbidity in adulthood.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                PeerJ
                PeerJ
                PeerJ
                PeerJ
                PeerJ
                PeerJ Inc. (San Francisco, USA )
                2167-8359
                22 September 2017
                2017
                : 5
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Public Health, Medical University of Bialystok , Białystok, Poland
                [2 ]Department of Developmental Medicine and Pediatric Nursing, Medical University of Bialystok , Białystok, Poland
                Article
                3681
                10.7717/peerj.3681
                5611898
                © 2017 Zalewska and Maciorkowska

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, reproduction and adaptation in any medium and for any purpose provided that it is properly attributed. For attribution, the original author(s), title, publication source (PeerJ) and either DOI or URL of the article must be cited.

                Funding
                The authors received no funding for this work.
                Categories
                Nutrition
                Pediatrics
                Public Health

                overweight and obesity, youth, diet, nutritional habits

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