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      Cardiovascular manifestations of sickle cell disease

      1 , 2 , 3 , 1

      European Heart Journal

      Oxford University Press (OUP)

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          Abstract

          Sickle cell disease (SCD) is the most frequent genetic haemoglobinopathy worldwide. Early childhood mortality has dramatically decreased in high-income countries, and most patients now survive beyond the 5th decade. However, in the aging SCD population, the morbidity related to chronic organ damage, especially kidney and heart, has become a major concern. While pulmonary hypertension has attracted most attention, it appears that this condition is frequently linked to left heart failure (HF). Accordingly, SCD-associated cardiomyopathy is emerging as a major cause of reduced quality of life and early mortality in these patients. The diagnosis of this particular phenotype of high-output HF is challenging. Exercise intolerance and dyspnoea in SCD patients are linked to multiple causes including chronic anaemia. Moreover, echocardiographic features are unusual and can be misinterpreted. The classical diagnosis algorithm for HF is generally not suitable in SCD patients, and HF is poorly recognized and mostly diagnosed at a late congestive stage in routine practice. Such patients need to be identified at an earlier stage of myocardial dysfunction via improved phenotyping. This constitutes the first step towards further investigations in SCD needed to improve the prognosis and the quality of life. This article provides an updated review of the recent advances in the pathophysiology and diagnosis, and in addition, perspectives of new therapeutic approaches in SCD-related cardiac manifestations.

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          Most cited references 52

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          Pulmonary hypertension as a risk factor for death in patients with sickle cell disease.

          The prevalence of pulmonary hypertension in adults with sickle cell disease, the mechanism of its development, and its prospective prognostic significance are unknown. We performed Doppler echocardiographic assessments of pulmonary-artery systolic pressure in 195 consecutive patients (82 men and 113 women; mean [+/-SD] age, 36+/-12 years). Pulmonary hypertension was prospectively defined as a tricuspid regurgitant jet velocity of at least 2.5 m per second. Patients were followed for a mean of 18 months, and data were censored at the time of death or loss to follow-up. Doppler-defined pulmonary hypertension occurred in 32 percent of patients. Multiple logistic-regression analysis, with the use of the dichotomous variable of a tricuspid regurgitant jet velocity of less than 2.5 m per second or 2.5 m per second or more, identified a self-reported history of cardiovascular or renal complications, increased systolic blood pressure, high lactate dehydrogenase levels (a marker of hemolysis), high levels of alkaline phosphatase, and low transferrin levels as significant independent correlates of pulmonary hypertension. The fetal hemoglobin level, white-cell count, and platelet count and the use of hydroxyurea therapy were unrelated to pulmonary hypertension. A tricuspid regurgitant jet velocity of at least 2.5 m per second, as compared with a velocity of less than 2.5 m per second, was strongly associated with an increased risk of death (rate ratio, 10.1; 95 percent confidence interval, 2.2 to 47.0; P<0.001) and remained so after adjustment for other possible risk factors in a proportional-hazards regression model. Pulmonary hypertension, diagnosed by Doppler echocardiography, is common in adults with sickle cell disease. It appears to be a complication of chronic hemolysis, is resistant to hydroxyurea therapy, and confers a high risk of death. Therapeutic trials targeting this population of patients are indicated. Copyright 2004 Massachusetts Medical Society
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            A hemodynamic study of pulmonary hypertension in sickle cell disease.

            The prevalence and characteristics of pulmonary hypertension in adults with sickle cell disease have not been clearly established. In this prospective study, we evaluated 398 outpatients with sickle cell disease (mean age, 34 years) at referral centers in France. All patients underwent Doppler echocardiography, with measurement of tricuspid-valve regurgitant jet velocity. Right heart catheterization was performed in 96 patients in whom pulmonary hypertension was suspected on the basis of a tricuspid regurgitant jet velocity of at least 2.5 m per second. Pulmonary hypertension was defined as a mean pulmonary arterial pressure of at least 25 mm Hg. The prevalence of a tricuspid regurgitant jet velocity of at least 2.5 m per second was 27%. In contrast, the prevalence of pulmonary hypertension as confirmed on catheterization was 6%. The positive predictive value of echocardiography for the detection of pulmonary hypertension was 25%. Among the 24 patients with confirmed pulmonary hypertension, the pulmonary-capillary wedge pressure was 15 mm Hg or less (indicating precapillary pulmonary hypertension) in 11 patients. Patients with confirmed pulmonary hypertension were older and had poorer functional capacity and higher levels of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide than other patients. In contrast, patients who had a tricuspid regurgitant jet velocity of at least 2.5 m per second without pulmonary hypertension and patients with a tricuspid regurgitant jet velocity of less than 2.5 m per second had similar clinical characteristics. In this study of adults with sickle cell disease, the prevalence of pulmonary hypertension as confirmed on right heart catheterization was 6%. Echocardiographic evaluation alone had a low positive predictive value for pulmonary hypertension. (Funded by the French Ministry of Health and Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00434902.).
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              Role of Diastolic Stress Testing in the Evaluation for Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction: A Simultaneous Invasive-Echocardiographic Study.

              Diagnosis of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is challenging and relies largely on demonstration of elevated cardiac filling pressures (pulmonary capillary wedge pressure). Current guidelines recommend use of natriuretic peptides (N-terminal pro-B type natriuretic peptide) and rest/exercise echocardiography (E/e' ratio) to make this determination. Data to support this practice are conflicting.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                European Heart Journal
                Oxford University Press (OUP)
                0195-668X
                1522-9645
                April 21 2019
                April 21 2019
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Sorbonne Université, Inserm, Institute of Cardiometabolism and Nutrition (ICAN), ACTION Study Group and Department of Cardiology, Institute of Cardiology (AP-HP), Hôpital Pitié- Salpêtrière, Boulevard de l'hôpital, Paris F-75013, France
                [2 ]Sorbonne Université, Department of Internal Medicine, centre de référence de la drépanocytose (AP-HP), Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Tenon, rue de la Chine, 75020 Paris, France
                [3 ]Department of Cardiovascular Imaging, Interventional and Thoracic Radiology (DICVRIT), Hôpital Pitié- Salpêtrière, Boulevard de l'hôpital, Sorbonne Université, Inserm, CNRS 7371, Laboratoire d'Imagerie Biomédicale, Institute of Cardiometabolism and Nutrition (ICAN), Institute of Cardiology (AP-HP), Paris F-75013, France
                Article
                10.1093/eurheartj/ehz217
                31005979
                © 2019

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