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      Water quality index calculated from biological, physical and chemical attributes

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          Abstract

          To ensure a safe drinking water supply, it is necessary to protect water quality. To classify the suitability of the Orós Reservoir (Northeast of Brazil) water for human consumption, a Water Quality Index (WQI) was enhanced and refined through a Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Samples were collected bi-monthly at seven points (P1 – P7) from July 2009 to July 2011. Samples were analysed for 29 physico-chemical attributes and 4 macroinvertebrate metrics associated with the macrophytes Pistia stratiotes and Eichhornia crassipes. PCA allowed us to reduce the number of attributes from 33 to 12, and 85.32 % of the variance was explained in five dimensions (C1 – C5). Components C1 and C3 were related to water-soluble salts and reflect the weathering process, while C2 was related to surface runoff. C4 was associated with macroinvertebrate diversity, represented by ten pollution-resistant families. C5 was related to the nutrient phosphorus, an indicator of the degree of eutrophication. The mean values for the WQIs ranged from 49 to 65 (rated as fair), indicating that water can be used for human consumption after treatment. The lowest values for the WQI were recorded at the entry points to the reservoir (P3, P1, P5, and P4), while the best WQIs were recorded at the exit points (P6 and P7), highlighting the reservoir’s purification ability. The proposed WQI adequately expressed water quality, and can be used for monitoring surface water quality.

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          Most cited references 50

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          The performance of a new biological water quality score system based on macroinvertebrates over a wide range of unpolluted running-water sites

           M FURSE,  J. Wright,  D. Moss (1983)
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            Evaluation of water quality in the Chillán River (Central Chile) using physicochemical parameters and a modified water quality index.

            The Chillán River in Central Chile plays a fundamental role in local society, as a source of irrigation and drinking water, and as a sink for urban wastewater. In order to characterize the spatial and temporal variability of surface water quality in the watershed, a Water Quality Index (WQI) was calculated from nine physicochemical parameters, periodically measured at 18 sampling sites (January-November 2000). The results indicated a good water quality in the upper and middle parts of the watershed. Downstream of the City of Chillán, water quality conditions were critical during the dry season, mainly due to the effects of the urban wastewater discharge. On the basis of the results from a Principal Component Analysis (PCA), modifications were introduced into the original WQI to reduce the costs associated with its implementation. WQIDIR2 and WQIDIR, which are both based on a laboratory analysis (Chemical Oxygen Demand) and three (pH, temperature and conductivity), respectively, four field measurements (pH, temperature, conductivity and Dissolved Oxygen), adequately reproduce the most important spatial and temporal variations observed with the original index. They are proposed as useful tools for monitoring global water quality trends in this and other, similar agricultural watersheds in the Chilean Central Valley. Possibilities and limitations for the application of the used methodology to watersheds in other parts of the world are discussed.
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              Adaptation and evaluation of the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment Water Quality Index (CCME WQI) for use as an effective tool to characterize drinking source water quality.

              Protecting drinking source water quality is a critical step in ensuring a safe supply of drinking water. Increasingly, drinking source water protection programs rely on the active participation of various stakeholders with differing degrees of water science knowledge. A drinking source water quality index presents a potential communication and analysis tool to facilitate cooperation between diverse interest groups as well as represent composite water quality. We tested the effectiveness of the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment Water Quality Index (CCME WQI) in capturing expert assessments of drinking water quality. In cooperation with a panel of drinking water quality experts we identified a core set of parameters to reflect common source water concerns. Drinking source water target values were drafted for use in the index corresponding to two basic treatment levels. Index scores calculated using the core parameter set and associated source water target values were strongly correlated with expert assessments of water quality. We recommend a modified index calculation procedure to accommodate parameters measured at different frequencies within any particular study period. The resulting drinking source water CCME WQI provides a valuable means of monitoring, communicating, and understanding surface source water quality. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                biofcr@yahoo.com.br
                Journal
                Environ Monit Assess
                Environ Monit Assess
                Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
                Springer International Publishing (Cham )
                0167-6369
                1573-2959
                10 December 2014
                10 December 2014
                2015
                : 187
                : 1
                Affiliations
                GRID grid.8395.7, ISNI 0000000121600329, The Engenharia Agrícola Department, , Federal University of Ceará, ; 12.168, Centro de Ciências Agrárias. Endereço: Av. Mister Hull, 2977, Bloco 804, - Campus do Pici, Fortaleza, 60450-760 Ceará Brazil
                Article
                4163
                10.1007/s10661-014-4163-1
                6763510
                25492707
                © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

                Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits any use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and the source are credited.

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                © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

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