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      Insulin-like growth factor-I receptor activity is essential for Kaposi's sarcoma growth and survival

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          Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is a highly vascular tumour and is the most common neoplasm associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) infection. Growth factors, in particular vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), have been shown to play an important role in its development. The role of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) in the pathophysiology of different tumours led us to evaluate the role of IGF system in KS. The IGF-I receptors (IGF-IR) were identified by immunohistochemistry in biopsies taken from patients with different AIDS/HIV-related KS stages and on KSIMM cells (an established KS-derived cell line). Insulin-like growth factor-I is a growth factor for KSIMM cells with a maximum increase of 3H-thymidine incorporation of 130±27.6% ( P<0.05) similar to that induced by VEGF and with which it is additive (281±13%) ( P<0.05). Moreover, specific blockade of the receptor (either by α IR3 antibody or by picropodophyllin, a recently described selective IGF-IR tyrosine phosphorylation inhibitor) induced KSIMM apoptosis, suggesting that IGF-IR agonists (IGF-I and -II) mediate antiapoptotic signals for these cells. We were able to identify an autocrine loop essential for KSIMM cell survival in which IGF-II is the IGF-IR agonist secreted by the cells. In conclusion, IGF-I pathway inhibition is a promising therapeutical approach for KS tumours.

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          Most cited references 36

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          Gene expression profiles in normal and cancer cells.

          As a step toward understanding the complex differences between normal and cancer cells in humans, gene expression patterns were examined in gastrointestinal tumors. More than 300,000 transcripts derived from at least 45,000 different genes were analyzed. Although extensive similarity was noted between the expression profiles, more than 500 transcripts that were expressed at significantly different levels in normal and neoplastic cells were identified. These data provide insight into the extent of expression differences underlying malignancy and reveal genes that may prove useful as diagnostic or prognostic markers.
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            The insulin-like growth factor system and cancer.

            The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) family of ligands, binding proteins and receptors is an important growth factor system involved in both the development of the organism and the maintenance of normal function of many cells of the body. The system also has powerful anti-apoptotic effects. More recently, evidence has accrued to demonstrate that the IGFs play an important role in cancer. Individuals with serum IGF-II levels in the upper quartile of the normal range (and IGF binding protein-3 levels in the lower quartiles) have a relative risk for developing breast, prostate, colon and lung cancer. IGF-II is commonly expressed by tumor cells and may act as an autocrine growth factor; occasionally even reaching target tissues and causing tumor-induced hypoglycemia. The IGF-I receptor is commonly (though not always) overexpressed in many cancers, and many recent studies have identified new signaling pathways emanating from the IGF-I receptor that affect cancer cell proliferation, adhesion, migration and cell death; functions that are critical for cancer cell survival and metastases. In this review, many aspects of the IGF system and its relationship to cancer will be discussed.
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              In vivo antitumor activity of NVP-AEW541-A novel, potent, and selective inhibitor of the IGF-IR kinase.

              IGF-IR-mediated signaling promotes survival, anchorage-independent growth, and oncogenic transformation, as well as tumor growth and metastasis formation in vivo. NVP-AEW541 is a pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine derivative small molecular weight kinase inhibitor of the IGF-IR, capable of distinguishing between the IGF-IR (IC50 = 0.086 microM) and the closely related InsR (IC50 = 2.3 microM) in cells. As expected for a specific IGF-IR kinase inhibitor, NVP-AEW541 abrogates IGF-I-mediated survival and colony formation in soft agar at concentrations that are consistent with inhibition of IGF-IR autophosphorylation. In vivo, this orally bioavailable compound inhibits IGF-IR signaling in tumor xenografts and significantly reduces the growth of IGF-IR-driven fibrosarcomas. Thus, NVP-AEW541 represents a class of selective, small molecule IGF-IR kinase inhibitors with proven in vivo antitumor activity and potential therapeutic application.

                Author and article information

                Br J Cancer
                British Journal of Cancer
                Nature Publishing Group
                05 April 2005
                20 April 2005
                25 April 2005
                : 92
                : 8
                : 1467-1474
                [1 ]Department of Molecular Medicine, Diabetes Center Karolinska, Karolinska Hospital, M1:02, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
                [2 ]Immunopathology Lab, Karolinska Hospital, M1:02, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
                [3 ]Department of Clinical Chemistry, Karolinska Hospital, M1:02, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
                Author notes
                [* ]Author for correspondence: Sergiu-Bogdan.Catrina@
                Copyright 2005, Cancer Research UK
                Molecular Diagnostics


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