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      The Effects of Diabetes Mellitus on Ovarian Injury and Reserve: An Experimental Study

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          Objective: The study aims to investigate the effects of diabetes mellitus (DM) on ovarian injury and reserve in a rat model. Study Design: In this prospective experimental study, 16 female Sprague-Dawley albino rats (12 weeks, 220-240 g) were randomly divided into 2 groups. Group 1 included 8 normal healthy rats as controls. No drug was administered to the controls. Group 2 included the other 8 rats in which diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injections of streptozotocin (STZ). After overt DM occurred (blood glucose >250 mg/dl), all the animals were euthanized and blood samples were collected by cardiac puncture for biochemical analysis. Bilateral oophorectomy was performed for histopathological examination. Immunoexpressions of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB) and caspase-3 as well as anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels were assessed. Values were analyzed by t test. Results: Immunoexpressions of NF-kB and caspase-3 were significantly higher in non-treated diabetic rats than in the control group (p = 0.011 and p = 0.010, respectively). In healthy control group, AMH levels (3.22 ± 0.58 ng/ml) were significantly higher than in the non-treated diabetic group (1.41 ± 0.25 ng/dl; p = 0.024). Conclusion: Hyperglycemia causes severe ovarian injury via NF-kB pathway and caspase-3 apoptotic pathway, leading to the decrease in ovarian reserve in STZ-induced diabetic rats.

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          Most cited references 25

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          Many agents which induce apoptosis are either oxidants or stimulators of cellular oxidative metabolism. Conversely, many inhibitors of apoptosis have antioxidant activities or enhance cellular antioxidant defenses. Mammalian cells exist in a state of oxidative siege in which survival requires an appropriate balance of oxidants and antioxidants. Thomas Buttke and Paul Sandstrom suggest that eukaryotic cells may benefit from this perilous existence by invoking oxidative stress as a common mediator of apoptosis.
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              The nuclear signaling of NF-kappaB: current knowledge, new insights, and future perspectives.

              The nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) transcription factor plays a critical role in diverse cellular processes associated with proliferation, cell death, development, as well as innate and adaptive immune responses. NF-kappaB is normally sequestered in the cytoplasm by a family of inhibitory proteins known as inhibitors of NF-kappaB (IkappaBs). The signal pathways leading to the liberation and nuclear accumulation of NF-kappaB, which can be activated by a wide variety of stimuli, have been extensively studied in the past two decades. After gaining access to the nucleus, NF-kappaB must be actively regulated to execute its fundamental function as a transcription factor. Recent studies have highlighted the importance of nuclear signaling in the regulation of NF-kappaB transcriptional activity. A non-Rel subunit of NF-kappaB, ribosomal protein S3 (RPS3), and numerous other nuclear regulators of NF-kappaB, including Akirin, Nurr1, SIRT6, and others, have recently been identified, unveiling novel and exciting layers of regulatory specificity for NF-kappaB in the nucleus. Further insights into the nuclear events that govern NF-kappaB function will deepen our understanding of the elegant control of its transcriptional activity and better inform the potential rational design of therapeutics for NF-kappaB-associated diseases.

                Author and article information

                Gynecol Obstet Invest
                Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation
                Gynecol Obstet Invest
                S. Karger AG (Basel, Switzerland karger@ 123456karger.com http://www.karger.com )
                September 2016
                19 December 2015
                : 81
                : 5
                : 424-429
                Departments of aObstetrics and Gynecology, bAnesthesiology and Reanimation, cPathology, dCardiovascular Surgery, and eBiochemistry, Erzincan University, School of Medicine, Erzincan, Turkey
                GOI2016081005424 Gynecol Obstet Invest 2016;81:424-429
                © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 1, References: 37, Pages: 6
                Original Article

                Medicine, General social science

                Diabetes mellitus, NF-kB, Caspase-3, Ovarian failure, Rat


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