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      Even a low-dose of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity reduces mortality by 22% in adults aged ≥60 years: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

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          Abstract

          The health benefits of 150 min a week of moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) in older adults, as currently recommended, are well established, but the suggested dose in older adults is often not reached.

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          Most cited references50

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          Barriers and motivations to exercise in older adults.

          Although exercise is an established component in the management of many chronic diseases associated with aging, activity levels tend to progressively decline with increasing age. Given the growing proportion of older adults, these suboptimal levels of physical activity represent an increasing public health problem. The predicators of adherence elucidated in younger adults are unreliable in elderly populations. Age-specific barriers and motivators unique to this cohort are relevant and must be acknowledged. The identification of reliable predictors of exercise adherence will allow healthcare providers to effectively intervene and change patterns of physical activity in sedentary elderly. In particular, because older patients respect their physician's advice and have regular contact with their family doctor, physicians can play a key and pivotal role in the initiation and maintenance of exercise behavior among the older population.
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            The combined effects of healthy lifestyle behaviors on all cause mortality: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

            Lifestyle factors are related to mortality. Although much is known about the impact of single factors, the current evidence about the combined effects of lifestyle behaviors on mortality has not yet been systematically compiled. We searched Medline, Embase, Global Health, and Somed up to February 2012. Prospective studies were selected if they reported the combined effects of at least three of five lifestyle factors (obesity, alcohol consumption, smoking, diet, and physical activity). The mean effect sizes that certain numbers of combined lifestyle factors have on mortality were compared to the group with the least number of healthy lifestyle factors by meta-analysis. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to explore the robustness of the results. 21 studies (18 cohorts) met the inclusion criteria of which 15 were included in the meta-analysis that comprised 531,804 people with a mean follow-up of 13.24 years. The relative risks decreased proportionate to a higher number of healthy lifestyle factors for all cause mortality. A combination of at least four healthy lifestyle factors is associated with a reduction of the all cause mortality risk by 66% (95% confidence interval 58%-73%). Adherence to a healthy lifestyle is associated with a lower risk of mortality. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.
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              Non-vigorous physical activity and all-cause mortality: systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies.

              Although previous studies have found physical activity to be associated with lower mortality, the dose-response relationship remains unclear. In this systematic review and meta-analysis we quantify the dose-response relationship of non-vigorous physical activity and all-cause mortality. We aimed to include all cohort studies in adult populations with a sample size of more than 10 000 participants that estimated the effect of different levels of light or moderate physical activity on all-cause mortality. We searched Medline, Embase, Cochrane (DARE), Web of Science and Global Health (June 2009). We used dose-response meta-regression models to estimate the relation between non-vigorous physical activity and mortality. We identified 22 studies that met our inclusion criteria, containing 977 925 (334 738 men and 643 187 women) people. There was considerable variation between the studies in their categorization of physical activity and adjustment for potential confounders. We found that 2.5 h/week (equivalent to 30 min daily of moderate intensity activity on 5 days a week) compared with no activity was associated with a reduction in mortality risk of 19% [95% confidence interval (CI) 15-24], while 7 h/week of moderate activity compared with no activity reduced the mortality risk by 24% (95% CI 19-29). We found a smaller effect in studies that looked at walking alone. Being physically active reduces the risk of all-cause mortality. The largest benefit was found from moving from no activity to low levels of activity, but even at high levels of activity benefits accrue from additional activity.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Br J Sports Med
                British journal of sports medicine
                1473-0480
                0306-3674
                Oct 2015
                : 49
                : 19
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Department of Clinical and Exercise Physiology, University Hospital of Saint-Etienne, PRES Lyon, Jean Monnet University, Saint-Etienne, France EA SNA EPIS 4607, Autonomic Nervous System, University of Lyon, Saint-Etienne, France EA LPE 4338, Laboratory of Exercise Physiology, University of Lyon, Saint Etienne, France.
                [2 ] Department of Clinical and Exercise Physiology, University Hospital of Saint-Etienne, PRES Lyon, Jean Monnet University, Saint-Etienne, France EA SNA EPIS 4607, Autonomic Nervous System, University of Lyon, Saint-Etienne, France.
                [3 ] Rehabilitation Departments, University Hospital of Dijon, Dijon, France Faculty of Sport Sciences, INSERM-U1093, University of Burgundy, Dijon, France CIC INSERM 1432, Technological Platform, University Hospital of Dijon, Dijon, France.
                [4 ] Department of Clinical and Exercise Physiology, University Hospital of Saint-Etienne, PRES Lyon, Jean Monnet University, Saint-Etienne, France EA LPE 4338, Laboratory of Exercise Physiology, University of Lyon, Saint Etienne, France.
                [5 ] Department of Public Health, Hygee Centre, Regional Centre for Cancer Prevention, Saint-Priest-en-Jarez, France CIC 1408 INSERM, Jean Monnet University, Saint-Etienne, France.
                [6 ] Division of Primary Care Medicine, Department of Community Medicine, Primary Care and Emergency Medicine, Geneva University Hospitals, Geneva, Switzerland.
                Article
                bjsports-2014-094306
                10.1136/bjsports-2014-094306
                26238869
                e3a3f9a1-1bf7-47dd-8c31-6a71b22e5dd4
                Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
                History

                Elderly people,Health promotion,Meta-analysis,Physical activity,Public health

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