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      Design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of novel EF24 and EF31 analogs as potential IκB kinase β inhibitors for the treatment of pancreatic cancer

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          Abstract

          Given the important role that inhibitory kappa B (IκB) kinase β (IKKβ) plays in pancreatic cancer (PC) development and progression, inhibitors targeting IKKβ are believed to be increasingly popular as novel anti-PC therapies. Two synthetic molecules, named EF24 and EF31, exhibited favorable potential in terms of inhibition of both IKKβ activity and PC cell proliferation. Aiming to enhance their cellular efficacy and to analyze their structure–activity relationship, four series of EF24 and EF31 analogs were designed and synthesized. Through kinase activity and vitality screening of cancer cells, D6 displayed excellent inhibition of both IKKβ activity and PC cell proliferation. Additionally, multiple biological evaluations showed that D6 was directly bound to IKKβ and significantly suppressed the activation of the IKKβ/nuclear factor κB pathway induced by tumor necrosis factor-α, as well as effectively inducing cancer cell apoptosis. Moreover, molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulation analysis indicated that the dominant force between D6 and IKKβ comprised hydrophobic interactions. In conclusion, D6 may be a promising therapeutic agent for PC treatment and it also provides a structural lead for the design of novel IKKβ inhibitors.

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          Most cited references 40

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          MMPBSA.py: An Efficient Program for End-State Free Energy Calculations.

          MM-PBSA is a post-processing end-state method to calculate free energies of molecules in solution. MMPBSA.py is a program written in Python for streamlining end-state free energy calculations using ensembles derived from molecular dynamics (MD) or Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. Several implicit solvation models are available with MMPBSA.py, including the Poisson-Boltzmann Model, the Generalized Born Model, and the Reference Interaction Site Model. Vibrational frequencies may be calculated using normal mode or quasi-harmonic analysis to approximate the solute entropy. Specific interactions can also be dissected using free energy decomposition or alanine scanning. A parallel implementation significantly speeds up the calculation by dividing frames evenly across available processors. MMPBSA.py is an efficient, user-friendly program with the flexibility to accommodate the needs of users performing end-state free energy calculations. The source code can be downloaded at http://ambermd.org/ with AmberTools, released under the GNU General Public License.
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            Recent progress in pancreatic cancer.

            Pancreatic cancer is currently one of the deadliest of the solid malignancies. However, surgery to resect neoplasms of the pancreas is safer and less invasive than ever, novel drug combinations have been shown to improve survival, advances in radiation therapy have resulted in less toxicity, and enormous strides have been made in the understanding of the fundamental genetics of pancreatic cancer. These advances provide hope but they also increase the complexity of caring for patients. It is clear that multidisciplinary care that provides comprehensive and coordinated evaluation and treatment is the most effective way to manage patients with pancreatic cancer. Copyright © 2013 American Cancer Society, Inc.
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              NF-kappaB is a negative regulator of IL-1beta secretion as revealed by genetic and pharmacological inhibition of IKKbeta.

              IKKbeta-dependent NF-kappaB activation plays a key role in innate immunity and inflammation, and inhibition of IKKbeta has been considered as a likely anti-inflammatory therapy. Surprisingly, however, mice with a targeted IKKbeta deletion in myeloid cells are more susceptible to endotoxin-induced shock than control mice. Increased endotoxin susceptibility is associated with elevated plasma IL-1beta as a result of increased pro-IL-1beta processing, which was also seen upon bacterial infection. In macrophages enhanced pro-IL-1beta processing depends on caspase-1, whose activation is inhibited by NF-kappaB-dependent gene products. In neutrophils, however, IL-1beta secretion is caspase-1 independent and depends on serine proteases, whose activity is also inhibited by NF-kappaB gene products. Prolonged pharmacologic inhibition of IKKbeta also augments IL-1beta secretion upon endotoxin challenge. These results unravel an unanticipated role for IKKbeta-dependent NF-kappaB signaling in the negative control of IL-1beta production and highlight potential complications of long-term IKKbeta inhibition.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                1177-8881
                2017
                12 May 2017
                : 11
                : 1439-1451
                Affiliations
                Department of Laparoscopic Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Bingren Hu, Department of Laparoscopic Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325000, People’s Republic of China, Tel/fax +86 577 5557 9422, Email wzmuhbr@ 123456163.com
                Article
                dddt-11-1439
                10.2147/DDDT.S133172
                5440027
                © 2017 Xie et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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                Original Research

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