Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) is the most common pathogen in bronchiectasis and frequently develops resistance to multiple classes of antibiotics, but little is known about the clinical impacts of PA-resistant (PA-R) isolates on bronchiectasis. We, therefore, investigated the prevalence, risk factors and prognostic implications of PA-R isolates in hospitalized bronchiectasis patients.
Between June 2011 and July 2016, data from adult bronchiectasis patients isolated with PA at the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University were retrospectively analyzed. PA was classified as PA-R in case antibiogram demonstrated resistance on at least one occasion.
Seven hundred forty-seven bronchiectasis patients were assessed. Of these, 147 (19.7%) had PA isolate in the sputum or bronchoscopic culture. PA-R and PA-sensitive accounted for 88 (59.9%) and 59 (31.1%) patients, respectively. In multivariate model, factors associated with PA-R isolate in bronchiectasis included prior exposure to antibiotics (odds ratio [OR] =6.18), three or more exacerbations in the previous year (OR =2.81), higher modified Medical Research Council dyspnea scores (OR =1.93) and greater radiologic severity (OR =1.15). During follow-up (median: 26 months; interquartile range: 6–59 months), 36 patients died, of whom 24 (66.7%) had PA-R isolate at baseline. However, PA-R isolate was not associated with greater all-cause mortality in bronchiectasis.
PA-R infection is common among bronchiectasis patients, mainly determined by prior exposure to antibiotics, frequent exacerbations, more pronounced dyspnea and more severe radiologic involvement. However, PA-R isolate is not an independent risk factor for all-cause mortality in bronchiectasis.