Introduction. Urinary tract infections (UTIs) remain common infections diagnosed in outpatients as well as hospitalized patients. Community-acquired UTIs are generally caused by Escherichia coli and other members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. Burkholderia cepacia is an opportunistic pathogen mainly affecting immunocompromised and hospitalized patients, particularly those who have received prior broad-spectrum antibacterial therapy.
Case presentation. Urine samples were collected from 157 outpatients clinically diagnosed with UTI and from 100 healthy control subjects. Samples were cultured on differential media and non-motile lactose-non-fermentors were identified via the Remel RapID ONE system. The isolates were tested by the disc diffusion method against 17 antimicrobial agents. Burkholderia was isolated as a single organism from four patients having uncomplicated infections, and one from recurrent infection. None of these patients had an underlying risk factor for this pathogen. Identification of these isolates by the Remel-RapID ONE system was confirmed by recA gene amplification. The four isolates were resistant to lincomycin, nalidixic acid, oxacillin and penicillin G. These cases received monotherapy of oral co-trimoxazole.
Conclusions. Our findings alert urologists and diagnostic laboratories to the potential of B. cepacia complex infections in similar cases, and that this bacterium should not be ruled out.