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      Novel Drug Delivery Systems for Retinal Diseases

      review-article
      a , b
      Ophthalmic Research
      S. Karger AG
      Corticosteroids, Drug delivery, eye, Retina

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          Abstract

          Introduction: Retinal diseases, such as macular edema from diabetic retinopathy and neovascular age-related macular degeneration, are important causes of visual impairment. Pharmacologic intervention has been employed, since laser can have limited success with improving vision. Topical eye drops and systemic therapy deliver low drug levels to the retina and the potential for systemic drug absorption and the accompanying side effects are high. As a result, transscleral and intravitreal drug delivery systems have had increasing importance in treating retinal diseases to deliver therapeutic drug concentrations and to limit the systemic drug exposure. Herein, we will review the novel drug delivery approaches for treating diabetic macular edema and neovascular age-related macular degeneration. Material and Methods: A Medline search was performed to identify articles that described novel drug delivery systems for treating diabetic macular edema and neovascular age-related macular degeneration. Our review was limited to intravitreal drug delivery systems that have recently completed phase II/III clinical trials and/or have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. Results: Journal articles were identified from the literature search and reviewed. Conclusions: Local administration of drugs using primarily intravitreal delivery systems is important in treating retinal diseases. Novel drug delivery approaches for treating diabetic macular edema currently are focused on sustained-release corticosteroids. For neovascular age-related macular degeneration, frequent intravitreal injections of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor compounds are the standard of care. Unmet needs in this population are therapies that reduce the treatment burden and improve visual acuity in a greater proportion of patients.

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          Most cited references75

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          Diabetic retinopathy: seeing beyond glucose-induced microvascular disease.

          Diabetic retinopathy remains a frightening prospect to patients and frustrates physicians. Destruction of damaged retina by photocoagulation remains the primary treatment nearly 50 years after its introduction. The diabetes pandemic requires new approaches to understand the pathophysiology and improve the detection, prevention, and treatment of retinopathy. This perspective considers how the unique anatomy and physiology of the retina may predispose it to the metabolic stresses of diabetes. The roles of neural retinal alterations and impaired retinal insulin action in the pathogenesis of early retinopathy and the mechanisms of vision loss are emphasized. Potential means to overcome limitations of current animal models and diagnostic testing are also presented with the goal of accelerating therapies to manage retinopathy in the face of ongoing diabetes.
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            Pharmacokinetics of intravitreal bevacizumab (Avastin).

            To describe the pharmacokinetics of 1.25 mg of intravitreal bevacizumab (Avastin). Experimental animal study. Twenty Dutch-belted rabbits. One eye of each of 20 rabbits was injected with 1.25 mg of intravitreal bevacizumab. Both eyes of each of 4 rabbits were enucleated at days 1, 3, 8, 15, and 29. Bevacizumab concentrations were measured in aqueous fluid, whole vitreous, and serum. Bevacizumab concentrations in the aqueous, vitreous, and serum. Whereas vitreous concentrations of bevacizumab declined in a monoexponential fashion with a half-life of 4.32 days, concentrations of >10 microg/ml bevacizumab were maintained in the vitreous humor for 30 days. Bevacizumab concentrations in the aqueous humor of the injected eye reached a peak concentration of 37.7 microg/ml 3 days after drug administration. A maximum serum concentration of 3.3 mug/ml was achieved 8 days after intravitreal injection and the concentration fell below 1 microg/ml 29 days after injection. Elimination of bevacizumab from the aqueous humor and serum paralleled that found in the vitreous humor, with half-life values of 4.88 days and 6.86 days, respectively. Very low concentrations of bevacizumab were detected in the fellow uninjected eye. Concentrations of bevacizumab in the vitreous of the fellow eye varied incrementally, from 0.35 ng/ml at 1 day to 11.17 ng/ml at 4 weeks. Concentrations of bevacizumab in the aqueous humor of the fellow eye reached their peak at 1 week, at 29.4 ng/ml, and declined to 4.56 ng/ml at 4 weeks. The vitreous half-life of 1.25 mg intravitreal bevacizumab is 4.32 days in a rabbit eye. Very small amounts of bevacizumab were detected in the serum and in the fellow uninjected eye.
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              Pharmacokinetics of intravitreal ranibizumab (Lucentis).

              To describe the pharmacokinetics of 0.5 mg of intravitreal ranibizumab (Lucentis) and to compare it with that of 1.25 mg of intravitreal bevacizumab (Avastin), using the same rabbit model. Experimental animal study. Twenty-eight Dutch-belted rabbits. One eye of each of 20 rabbits was injected with 0.5 mg of intravitreal ranibizumab. Both eyes of each of 4 rabbits were enucleated at days 1, 3, 8, 15, and 29. Ranibizumab concentrations were measured in aqueous fluid, whole vitreous, and serum. A further 8 rabbits were used to measure serum and fellow ranibizumab at additional time points of 3 and 8 hours. Ranibizumab concentrations in the aqueous, vitreous, and serum. Although vitreous concentrations of ranibizumab declined in a monoexponential fashion with a half-life of 2.88 days, concentrations of >0.1 microg/ml ranibizumab were maintained in the vitreous humor for 29 days. Ranibizumab concentrations in the aqueous humor of the injected eye reached a peak concentration of 17.9 microg/ml, 3 days after drug administration. Elimination of ranibizumab from the aqueous humor paralleled that found in the vitreous humor, with a half-life value of 2.84 days. No ranibizumab was detected in the serum or the fellow eye. In the rabbit, the vitreous half-life of 0.5-mg intravitreal ranibizumab is 2.88 days, shorter than the half-life of 1.25-mg intravitreal bevacizumab of 4.32 days. No ranibizumab was detected in the serum or the fellow uninjected eye; whereas small amounts of intravitreal bevacizumab have been detected in the serum and fellow uninjected eye.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                ORE
                Ophthalmic Res
                10.1159/issn.0030-3747
                Ophthalmic Research
                S. Karger AG
                0030-3747
                1423-0259
                2009
                April 2009
                26 March 2009
                : 41
                : 3
                : 124-135
                Affiliations
                aDepartment of Biomedical Engineering, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, Calif., and bAllergan Inc., Ophthalmology Clinical Research, Irvine, Calif., USA
                Article
                209665 Ophthalmic Res 2009;41:124–135
                10.1159/000209665
                19321933
                e3b35d14-7517-460b-8da1-ac8440b6a576
                © 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                History
                : 08 August 2008
                : 10 May 2008
                Page count
                Figures: 6, References: 112, Pages: 12
                Categories
                Review

                Vision sciences,Ophthalmology & Optometry,Pathology
                Retina,Drug delivery, eye,Corticosteroids
                Vision sciences, Ophthalmology & Optometry, Pathology
                Retina, Drug delivery, eye, Corticosteroids

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