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      Eight New Peptaibols from Sponge-Associated Trichoderma atroviride

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          Eight new and four known peptaibols were isolated from a strain of the fungus, Trichoderma atroviride (NF16), which was cultured from an Axinellid sponge collected from the East Mediterranean coast of Israel. The structures of the pure compounds were determined using HRMS, MS/MS and one- and two-dimensional NMR measurements. The isolated compounds belong to the trichorzianines, a family of 19-residue linear hydrophobic peptides containing a high proportion of α-aminoisobutyric acid (Aib), an acetylated N-terminus and a C-terminal amino alcohol. These new peptaibols exhibited antimicrobial activity against environmental bacteria isolated from the Mediterranean coast of Israel.

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          Most cited references 30

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          Rapid extraction of bacterial genomic DNA with guanidium thiocyanate

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            Biocontrol mechanisms of Trichoderma strains.

            The genus Trichoderma comprises a great number of fungal strains that act as biological control agents, the antagonistic properties of which are based on the activation of multiple mechanisms. Trichoderma strains exert biocontrol against fungal phytopathogens either indirectly, by competing for nutrients and space, modifying the environmental conditions, or promoting plant growth and plant defensive mechanisms and antibiosis, or directly, by mechanisms such as mycoparasitism. These indirect and direct mechanisms may act coordinately and their importance in the biocontrol process depends on the Trichoderma strain, the antagonized fungus, the crop plant, and the environmental conditions, including nutrient availability, pH, temperature, and iron concentration. Activation of each mechanism implies the production of specific compounds and metabolites, such as plant growth factors, hydrolytic enzymes, siderophores, antibiotics, and carbon and nitrogen permeases. These metabolites can be either overproduced or combined with appropriate biocontrol strains in order to obtain new formulations for use in more efficient control of plant diseases and postharvest applications.
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              Determination ofD-amino acids. II. Use of a bifunctional reagent, 1,5-difluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene

               Peter Marfey (1984)

                Author and article information

                [1 ]Raymond and Beverly Sackler School of Chemistry and Faculty of Exact Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978, Israel; E-Mail: irinakha@
                [2 ]Department of Zoology, George S. Wise Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978, Israel; E-Mail: Milan@
                [3 ]Department of Plant Pathology and Microbiology, The Robert H. Smith Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environment, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot 76100, Israel; E-Mail: Oded.Yarden@
                Author notes
                [* ]Author to whom correspondence should be addressed; E-Mail: carmeli@ ; Tel.: +972-3-640-8550; Fax: +972-3-640-9293.
                Mar Drugs
                Mar Drugs
                Marine Drugs
                11 December 2013
                December 2013
                : 11
                : 12
                : 4937-4960
                © 2013 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

                This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license (



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