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      Pharmacological Modulation of Radiation Damage. Does It Exist a Chance for Other Substances than Hematopoietic Growth Factors and Cytokines?

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          Abstract

          In recent times, cytokines and hematopoietic growth factors have been at the center of attention for many researchers trying to establish pharmacological therapeutic procedures for the treatment of radiation accident victims. Two granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-based radiation countermeasures have been approved for the treatment of the hematopoietic acute radiation syndrome. However, at the same time, many different substances with varying effects have been tested in animal studies as potential radioprotectors and mitigators of radiation damage. A wide spectrum of these substances has been studied, comprising various immunomodulators, prostaglandins, inhibitors of prostaglandin synthesis, agonists of adenosine cell receptors, herbal extracts, flavonoids, vitamins, and others. These agents are often effective, relatively non-toxic, and cheap. This review summarizes the results of animal experiments, which show the potential for some of these untraditional or new radiation countermeasures to become a part of therapeutic procedures applicable in patients with the acute radiation syndrome. The authors consider β-glucan, 5-AED (5-androstenediol), meloxicam, γ-tocotrienol, genistein, IB-MECA ( N 6-(3-iodobezyl)adenosine-5’- N-methyluronamide), Ex-RAD (4-carboxystyryl-4-chlorobenzylsulfone), and entolimod the most promising agents, with regards to their contingent use in clinical practice.

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          Most cited references 191

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          The chemistry and antioxidant properties of tocopherols and tocotrienols.

          This article is a review of the fundamental chemistry of the tocopherols and tocotrienols relevant to their antioxidant action. Despite the general agreement that alpha-tocopherol is the most efficient antioxidant and vitamin E homologue in vivo, there was always a considerable discrepancy in its "absolute" and "relative" antioxidant effectiveness in vitro, especially when compared to gamma-tocopherol. Many chemical, physical, biochemical, physicochemical, and other factors seem responsible for the observed discrepancy between the relative antioxidant potencies of the tocopherols in vivo and in vitro. This paper aims at highlighting some possible reasons for the observed differences between the tocopherols (alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and delta-) in relation to their interactions with the important chemical species involved in lipid peroxidation, specifically trace metal ions, singlet oxygen, nitrogen oxides, and antioxidant synergists. Although literature reports related to the chemistry of the tocotrienols are quite meager, they also were included in the discussion in virtue of their structural and functional resemblance to the tocopherols.
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            Prostaglandin E2 enhances hematopoietic stem cell homing, survival, and proliferation.

            Adult hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are routinely used to reconstitute hematopoiesis after myeloablation; however, transplantation efficacy and multilineage reconstitution can be limited by inadequate HSC number, or poor homing, engraftment, or self-renewal. Here we report that mouse and human HSCs express prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) receptors, and that short-term ex vivo exposure of HSCs to PGE2 enhances their homing, survival, and proliferation, resulting in increased long-term repopulating cell (LTRC) and competitive repopulating unit (CRU) frequency. HSCs pulsed with PGE2 are more competitive, as determined by head-to-head comparison in a competitive transplantation model. Enhanced HSC frequency and competitive advantage is stable and maintained upon serial transplantation, with full multilineage reconstitution. PGE2 increases HSC CXCR4 mRNA and surface expression, enhances their migration to SDF-1 in vitro and homing to bone marrow in vivo, and stimulates HSC entry into and progression through cell cycle. In addition, PGE2 enhances HSC survival, associated with an increase in Survivin mRNA and protein expression and reduction in intracellular active caspase-3. Our results define novel mechanisms of action whereby PGE2 enhances HSC function and supports a strategy to use PGE2 to facilitate hematopoietic transplantation.
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              Protection against ionizing radiation by antioxidant nutrients and phytochemicals

              The potential of antioxidants to reduce the cellular damage induced by ionizing radiation has been studied in animal models for more than 50 years. The application of antioxidant radioprotectors to various human exposure situations has not been extensive although it is generally accepted that endogenous antioxidants, such as cellular non-protein thiols and antioxidant enzymes, provide some degree of protection. This review focuses on the radioprotective efficacy of naturally occurring antioxidants, specifically antioxidant nutrients and phytochemicals, and how they might influence various endpoints of radiation damage. Results from animal experiments indicate that antioxidant nutrients, such as vitamin E and selenium compounds, are protective against lethality and other radiation effects but to a lesser degree than most synthetic protectors. Some antioxidant nutrients and phytochemicals have the advantage of low toxicity although they are generally protective when administered at pharmacological doses. Naturally occurring antioxidants also may provide an extended window of protection against low-dose, low-dose-rate irradiation, including therapeutic potential when administered after irradiation. A number of phytochemicals, including caffeine, genistein, and melatonin, have multiple physiological effects, as well as antioxidant activity, which result in radioprotection in vivo. Many antioxidant nutrients and phytochemicals have antimutagenic properties, and their modulation of long-term radiation effects, such as cancer, needs further examination. In addition, further studies are required to determine the potential value of specific antioxidant nutrients and phytochemicals during radiotherapy for cancer.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Mol Sci
                Int J Mol Sci
                ijms
                International Journal of Molecular Sciences
                MDPI
                1422-0067
                28 June 2017
                July 2017
                : 18
                : 7
                Affiliations
                Department of Cell Biology and Radiobiology, Institute of Biophysics, v.v.i., Czech Academy of Sciences, Královopolská 135, 61265 Brno, Czech Republic; hoferovaz@ 123456centrum.cz (Z.H.); falk@ 123456ibp.cz (M.F.)
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: hofer@ 123456ibp.cz ; Tel.: +420-541-517-171; Fax: +420-541-211-293
                Article
                ijms-18-01385
                10.3390/ijms18071385
                5535878
                28657605
                © 2017 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                Categories
                Review

                Molecular biology

                acute radiation syndrome, radioprotectors, radiomitigators, hematopoiesis

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