Along with an indispensable role in healthcare system of China for centuries, Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) shows increasing usages as complementary therapy in western countries. To improve our understanding on their therapeutic effects, it’s critical to unveil chemical compositions of TCM formula, the predominant form of therapy in TCM. However, intrinsic chemical complexity makes it a challenging task to perform analysis on each individual TCM formula even with most current state-of-art analytic techniques available. In this work we approached this question by focusing on analogous formulae, a unique category of TCM formulae grouped together based on shared herbs and/or similar TCM syndromes. Systematic chemical profiling on five Si-Ni decoctions (SNs) for cardiovascular diseases was performed by multistage MS and high-resolution MS (HR-MS) experiments. A total of 83 compounds, including alkaloids, flavonoids, ginsenosides, bile acids and triterpenoids, were described. Analysis on SNs-treated rats detected 55 prototype compounds and 39 metabolites in the systemic circulation in vivo, which may contribute directly to their observed clinical efficacies. This approach offers great advantage to speed up identification of chemical compositions of formula and reveal the difference among these analogous formulae that may be related to diverse clinical effects.