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      Optimal dosage of cyclopentolate 1% for cycloplegic refraction in hypermetropes with brown irides


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          To find the optimal dosage of cyclopentolate 1% for cycloplegic refraction in hypermetropes with brown irides, we investigated the difference in cycloplegic auto-refractions obtained after one, two, and three instillations in the same patient. The mean hypermetropia found after three instillations was statistically significantly more compared to that found after one instillation. There was no statistically significant difference in the mean hypermetropia between two and three instillations. There was no significant effect of gender, age, and the presence and type of horizontal deviation. These observations suggest that two drops of cyclopentolate 1% 10 min apart are sufficient for cycloplegic refraction in hypermetropes.

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          Retinoscopy in infants using a near noncycloplegic technique, cycloplegia with tropicamide 1%, and cycloplegia with cyclopentolate 1%.

          This study compares retinoscopy in infants using a near noncycloplegic technique, cycloplegia with tropicamide 1%, and cycloplegia with cyclopentolate 1%. The study sample included 29 healthy, nonstrabismic infants 4 to 7 months of age (mean 5.71 months). Each study subject was examined at two separate visits an average of 2 weeks apart (mean [+/-SD] 14 +/- 9 days). The examiner completed a case history, iris color grading, confrontation tests, and noncycloplegic near retinoscopy in a dark room and then instilled a drop of topical anesthetic in each eye followed by 2 drops of cycloplegic agent separated by 5 min. Retinoscopy was performed 25 to 30 min after the first drops were instilled. The bottles were masked, and the drop administered at the first visit was randomly assigned. On a scale of 0 to 4.9, the median iris grade was 4.0, which corresponds to a brown or darkly pigmented iris. All reported retinoscopy results are for the horizontal meridian of the right eye. The mean refractive error using noncycloplegic near retinoscopy was +0.94 D (+/-1.19 D). The mean refractive error was +1.81 D (+/-1.19 D) with tropicamide and +1.88 D (+/-1.45 D) with cyclopentolate. There was no statistically or clinically significant difference between the two cycloplegic measurements using different diagnostic agents (t = -0.46, p = 0.65). The mean difference between noncycloplegic and cycloplegic retinoscopy was 0.89 D (+/-0.66 D) with tropicamide (t = -6.57, p < 0.0001) and 1.04 D (+/-0.94 D) with cyclopentolate (t = -5.38, p < 0.0001; all two-sided paired t-tests). There were no serious adverse reactions with either agent, although one infant temporarily developed redder than normal cheeks after instillation of cyclopentolate. Our results suggest that tropicamide is as effective as cyclopentolate for the measurement of refractive error in most healthy, nonstrabismic infants.
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            1% Cyclopentolate hydrochloride: another look at the time course of cycloplegia using an objective measure of the accommodative response.

            The time course of cycloplegia was measured by monitoring residual accommodation after the application of 1 drop (29.3 microliters) of 1% cyclopentolate hydrochloride. Three different measures of residual accommodation were made, one objective assessment with an optometer, and two subjective assessments similar to those used by previous investigators. Pupil diameter was also measured in a subgroup of individuals to compare the time course of the induced mydriasis to that of the cycloplegia. When residual accommodation is measured objectively, maximum cycloplegia occurs 10 min after the application of 1% cyclopentolate hydrochloride in individuals with light irides. This result suggests that the standard clinical protocol of delaying refraction 30 to 60 min after the application of cyclopentolate hydrochloride may be too conservative for individuals with light irides. For individuals with dark irides, 30 to 40 min is required for maximum cycloplegia, and the magnitude of residual accommodation in these individuals is similar to that found in light iris individuals at 10 min. When subjective measures are used to estimate residual accommodation, more accommodation is present and the time at which maximum cycloplegia occurs is delayed for individuals with light irides. These results are in agreement with previous studies using subjective techniques. Regardless of iris color or measurement method, the time course for pupil dilation is not the same as the time course for cycloplegia.
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              Optimal dosage of cyclopentolate 1% for complete cycloplegia: a randomized clinical trial.

              To determine the optimal dosage of cyclopentolate for adequate cycloplegia with minimal side effects. A prospective randomized clinical trial of patients 3.5 to 20 years of age referred to a strabismus clinic during a 1-year period. Eligible patients were randomly divided into three groups. In Group 1, the cycloplegic effect of one drop of cyclopentolate was compared with two drops; in Group 2, the effect of two drops was compared with three drops; and in Group 3, the effect of one drop was compared with three drops. This study includes 192 eyes of 96 patients with a mean age of 11.0 +/- 5.7 years. Strabismus was present in 43 patients (44.8%). A total of 146 patients (76%) were hyperopic, 33 (17.2%) were myopic, and 13 (6.8%) were slightly hyperopic or myopic at the two stages of the study. Overall, only 16 eyes, including 9 eyes in Group 1 (16.4%), 2 eyes in Group 2 (3.2%), and 5 eyes in Group 3 (8.6%), had > or = 0.5 D difference in spherical equivalent refractive error at two stages of the study; however, intergroup differences were not statistically significant (p=0.16, chi-square test). Within each group, the percentage of eyes with or = 0.5 D difference (p<0.001 in all three groups, binomial test). Side effects were more prevalent using more frequent drops. A single drop of cyclopentolate 1% suffices for cycloplegic refraction. There were less frequent side effects using one drop of cyclopentolate, compared to two or three drops.

                Author and article information

                Indian J Ophthalmol
                Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
                Medknow Publications (India )
                Nov-Dec 2011
                : 59
                : 6
                : 514-516
                [1]Squint Centre, Chandigarh, India
                [1 ]Cornea Centre, Chandigarh, India
                Author notes
                Correspondence to: Dr. Kanwar Mohan, Squint Centre, SCO 833-834, 2 nd Floor, Sector 22-A, Chandigarh – 160 022, Punjab, India. E-mail: kanwarmohan@ 123456sify.com
                Copyright: © Indian Journal of Ophthalmology

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 Unported, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                : 28 April 2010
                : 03 January 2011
                Brief Communications

                Ophthalmology & Optometry
                cycloplegic refraction,cyclopentolate,hypermetropia
                Ophthalmology & Optometry
                cycloplegic refraction, cyclopentolate, hypermetropia


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