+1 Recommend
1 collections
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found

      A Conservative Approach Is Reasonable in Patients with Non-Toxic Goitre: Results from an Observational Study during 30 Years

      Read this article at

          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.


          Background: There is a lack of consensus in Europe regarding the management of patients with benign goitre. The object of this study was to find out the long-term results of recommending to patients with clinically and cytologically benign non-toxic goitres not to be operated. Methods: 980 patients were initially referred for surgical evaluation due to non-toxic goitre, 508 of whom underwent directly thyroidectomy. The remaining 473 patients (median age 56 years) were not operated and followed prospectively for a median period of 145 months. Results: During follow-up, 38% of the 473 patients were re-referred to the surgeon for a new evaluation due to different complaints, mainly growth of the goitre and/or worsening of local symptoms. 102 of the 473 patients (22%) had surgery and 27 (5.7%) developed thyrotoxicosis. 14 patients (3%) were diagnosed with thyroid carcinoma, 4 (0.46%) of whom (all elderly women) died of the disease. Conclusions: In patients with non-toxic goitre in whom surgery is not deemed necessary at initial evaluation, a conservative approach is reasonable. There is, however, a small risk for the development of aggressive carcinomas, and a fourth of the patients are operated at a median follow-up of 12 years.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 26

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Cancer risk in patients with cold thyroid nodules: relevance of iodine intake, sex, age, and multinodularity.

          We evaluated the frequency of thyroid cancer in patients with cold thyroid nodules in relation to iodine intake, sex, age, and multinodularity in a consecutive series of patients with nodular thyroid diseases. In the period from 1980 to 1990, 5,637 patients were studied: 4,176 patients were from an iodine-sufficient area (ISA) and 1,461 from an adjacent iodine-deficient area (IDA). Surgery was performed in 792 patients on the basis of a suspicious or malignant finding at fine-needle aspiration biopsy. The overall thyroid cancer frequency was 4.6% (259 patients had cancer). Iodine intake affected the cancer rate in patients with cold nodules. The frequency of cancer in patients with cold thyroid nodules was 5.3% in the ISA and 2.7% in the IDA. This difference, however, was significant only in females. Sex had a major influence on the malignant rate of cold nodules; although female patients were more frequently observed (n = 5,028) than male patients (n = 609), the frequency of cancer was significantly lower in female patients with cold nodules (4.2%) than in males (8.2%). Age was an important factor in both sexes. The proportion of nodules that were malignant was smallest in patients of the 4th decade and was greatest in patients younger than 30 years or older than 60 years. Multivariate analysis showed that sex and age interact in determining the cancer risk in patients with thyroid nodules. Finally, the frequency of thyroid cancer in patients with a solitary nodule was not different from the frequency in patients with multiple nodules. Our study indicates that thyroid cancer risk in a patient with a nodular goiter varies markedly according to iodine intake, sex, and age but not in relation to multinodularity, as assessed by clinical examination. The knowledge of these epidemiologic aspects of thyroid cancer may increase the accuracy of the preoperative selection of patients with cold nodules of the thyroid.
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Prevalence of thyroid disorders in the working population of Germany: ultrasonography screening in 96,278 unselected employees.

            Germany continues to be iodine deficient despite considerable improvement in the past years. To assess the current prevalence of diffuse and/or nodular thyroid disorders, a cross-sectional observational study in a nonrandom sample of the working population was carried out throughout Germany in 2001 and 2002. A total of 96,278 employees 18-65 years of age from 214 companies or other private or public institutions voluntarily underwent ultrasonographic examinations by 230 experienced investigators. To compare the prevalence of different abnormal findings in relation to age and gender, descriptive statistics and the Kruskal-Wallis test were used. Data from volunteers with previous thyroid treatment (13.0% of total sample) were not included in the analysis. Abnormal findings (goiter and/or nodules > 0.5 cm) were observed in 33.1% (men, 32.0%; women, 34.2%) of the examined patient population, an enlarged thyroid without nodules in 9.7% (men, 11.9%; women, 7.6%), nodules only without enlargement of the thyroid in 14.3% (men, 11.5%; women, 17.0%), and nodular goiter in 9.1% (men, 8.6%; women, 9.6%). Nodules (with or without goiter) between 0.5 and up to 1.0 cm were found in 10.0%, and nodules above 1.0 cm in 11.9% of the population. Rates of abnormal findings increased with age in both genders. Goiter was more common in men, nodules in women. In light of these findings, the prevalence of thyroid disorders in Germany continues to be high. Although the study may slightly overestimate the prevalence, about one third of the working population is affected and remains unaware of this condition. These results emphasize the importance of effective sonographic screening to detect early thyroid abnomalities in order to initiate preventive and therapeutic measures to prevent the onset or progression of disease and its sequels.
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Are there predictors of malignancy in patients with multinodular goiter?

              Multinodular goiters (MNG) have recently been shown to have an incidence of cancer that approaches that of solitary thyroid nodule. However, fine needle aspiration (FNA) of a MNG is limited due to the presence of multiple nodules. Therefore we sought to identify risk factors for malignancy in patients with MNG. A total of 1791 consecutive patients underwent thyroidectomy at a single academic institution between May 1994 and December 2009. Of these, 838 patients had a MNG, which we defined as ≥ 2 nodules on preoperative ultrasound. The medical records of these patients were reviewed and analyzed. A final pathologic diagnosis of malignancy was found in 260 of 838 (31%) of MNG patients. Of the 260 patients with malignancy, 113 (44%) had a focus of cancer 1 cm in size. On univariate analysis risk factors for malignancy were younger age and male gender. Patients with malignant nodules also had smaller nodules, smaller thyroids, and fewer nodules than those patients with benign findings on pathology. On multivariate analysis all predictors remained independently associated with malignancy with the exception of thyroid weight. Risk factors for malignancy in a MNG included male gender, younger age, fewer nodules, and smaller nodule size. The low predictive value of FNA in our population suggests there needs to be better ways to predict malignancy in patients with MNG. Therefore, these clinical risk factors should be considered when consulting patients with MNG in regards to their risk of malignancy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

                Author and article information

                European Thyroid Journal
                S. Karger AG
                December 2014
                15 October 2014
                : 3
                : 4
                : 240-244
                aDepartment of Surgery, Highland Hospital, Eksjö, and bDepartment of Surgery, County Hospital Ryhov, Jönköping, Sweden
                Author notes
                *Johannes Järhult, MD, PhD, Department of Surgery, County Hospital Ryhov, SE-55185 Jönköping (Sweden), E-Mail johannes.jarhult@lj.se
                367845 PMC4311300 Eur Thyroid J 2014;3:240-244
                © 2014 European Thyroid Association Published by S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Tables: 3, Pages: 5
                Clinical Thyroidology / Original Paper


                Comment on this article