To evaluate whether intravascular phenomena contribute to local differences in growth responses of the arterial wall, we evaluated responses to organoid culture in a broad variety of arterial preparations. Arterial segments were isolated from adult, normotensive rats, sympathectomized, denuded from endothelium, and suspended in medium supplemented with serum. As judged from the nuclear incorporation of the thymidine analogue 5-bromo-2’-deoxyuridine (BrdUrd), this induced a transient stimulation of DNA synthesis in only a fraction of the arterial smooth muscle cells in all types of arteries. This intramedial DNA synthesis was more marked in renal arteries than in carotid arteries or aortae and was least pronounced in main pulmonary, femoral, and superior mesenteric artery and in mesenteric resistance-sized arteries. Organoid culture of isolated arteries did not increase the cross-sectional area of the media or the number of medial cells. It rather resulted in proliferation of smooth-muscle-like cells outside the media. In addition, smooth-muscle-like cells migrated out of the isolated arterial segments during culture. The rate of proliferation of these isolated cells did not differ between large arteries of different anatomical origin. However, isolated cells derived from mesenteric resistance arteries proliferated at a rate that was 4 times slower than that of large artery cells. The presence of endothelium significantly reduced medial DNA synthesis in carotid and renal artery segments, but not in mesenteric resistance-sized preparations. These data indicate that growth responses of the arterial wall differ quantitatively with the anatomical location and branching order of the vascular segment. In addition to the regional heterogeneity of endothelial effects on mitogenic responses of arterial smooth muscle, this seems to be due to regional differences in the susceptibility of arterial smooth muscle to exogenous growth factors. In this respect, we speculate that subsets of growth-resistant and growth-prone arterial smooth muscle cells could be heterogeneously distributed over the arterial tree.