For verifying the prognosis of Lucentis-assisted vitrectomy (PPV) in diabetic retinopathy (DR) and neovascular glaucoma (NVG), a retrospective analysis of DR and NVG patients who were admitted to our hospital from July 2019 to December 2020 was conducted. According to the treatment protocol, subjects who had PPV intervention were in the control group (CG; n = 38) and those receiving Lucentis adjunctive PPV were included in the intervention group (RG; n = 40). The indicators between groups were listed: treatment success rate, postoperative complication rate, surgical outcome indicators, BCVA, intraocular pressure (IOP) change, foveal thickness, and VEGF level in aqueous humor. Indicators in RG were obviously higher than in CG, such as treatment success rate and surgical outcome indicators. Conversely, lower postoperative complication rate, postoperative BCVA, IOP, retinal fovea thickness, and VEGF level in aqueous humor were found in RG than in CG. Therefore, the study reached the following conclusions about vitrectomy assisted by Lucentis: (1) it effectively increases the success rate of treatment, decreases postoperative complications as well as surgical risks, and improves patients' vision; (2) it promotes the recovery of IOP, reduces macular edema and VEGF levels in aqueous humor, and inhibits the neonatal formation of blood vessels. It is finally confirmed that Lucentis adjuvant PPV in the treatment of DR complicated with NVG is safe and feasible.