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      Acute Morphine Administration Reduces White Blood Cells’ Capability to Induce Innate Resistance against HSV-1 Infection in BALB/c Mice

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          Abstract

          Objective: It has been reported that acute morphine administration modulates innate immune response to herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infection. In this study, the effect of acute morphine on innate resistance and its probable mechanisms in increasing the mortality rate during HSV-1 infection were investigated. Methods: Mice were infected with HSV-1 24 h prior to different doses of morphine or saline administration and the mortality rate was recorded. Spleen cells were obtained from morphine- or saline-treated mice, then natural killer (NK) cell activity and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) production were evaluated. The effect of morphine on white blood cells’ capacity to induce protection against HSV-1 infection was evaluated by adoptive transfer of spleen cells to cyclophosphamide-treated mice that were previously infected with HSV-1. Furthermore, in a separate experiment, a different group of mice received corticosterone 24 h after HSV-1 infection. Results: Mortality rate in high-dose acute morphine-treated mice increased significantly compared to saline-treated mice (p = 0.035). NK cell cytotoxicity and IFN-γ mRNA levels also showed a significant reduction compared to those of control groups (p < 0.001 and p = 0.014, respectively). Corticosterone administration reduces innate resistance against HSV-1 infection compared to saline-treated mice (p = 0.044). Furthermore, adoptive transfer of normal but not morphine-treated spleen cells induces resistance against HSV infection in cyclophosphamide-injected mice (p = 0.009). Conclusions: The current study shows that acute morphine administration reduces white blood cells’ capability to induce protection against HSV-1 infection via suppression of IFN-γ production and NK cells activity. This may be due to the increase in corticosteroids. Further studies are needed to test the effect of acute morphine on other immune cells.

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          Most cited references 20

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          Opioids, opioid receptors, and the immune response.

          It is now clear that opioid receptors participate in the function of the cells of the immune system, and evidence suggests that opioids modulate both innate and acquired immune responses. We review literature here which establishes that mu-, kappa-, and delta-opioid compounds alter resistance to a variety of infectious agents, including the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). The nature of the immunomodulatory activity of the opioids has been the subject of a great deal of research over the last ten years. There is increasing evidence that effects of opioids on the immune response are mediated at several levels. Modulation of the inflammatory response appears to be a target of these compounds, including effects on phagocytic activity, as well as the response of cells to various chemoattractant molecules. Moreover, findings from several laboratories have demonstrated the impact of opioid treatment on antibody responses, and the molecular basis for this effect is likely due, at least in part, to the modulation of both cytokine and cytokine receptor expression. Future research should provide a clearer understanding of the cellular and molecular targets of opioid action within the immune system.
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            Interplay between alpha/beta and gamma interferons with B, T, and natural killer cells in the defense against herpes simplex virus type 1.

            The essential components of the immune system that control primary and chronic infection with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) in mice were investigated. Infection within the first few days can be controlled by alpha/beta interferon (IFN-alpha/beta) alone without significant contribution of B, T, or NK cells. IFN-alpha/beta and IFN-gamma cooperate in the elimination of virus in the absence of these lymphocytes. In contrast, B, T, or NK cells appear to be required to control persistent infection with HSV-1. These results suggest that distinct and essential immune elements are recruited in a time-dependent fashion to control acute and persistent HSV-1 infection.
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              Recent Progress in Herpes Simplex Virus Immunobiology and Vaccine Research

               L Corey,  D M Koelle (2003)
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NIM
                Neuroimmunomodulation
                10.1159/issn.1021-7401
                Neuroimmunomodulation
                S. Karger AG
                1021-7401
                1423-0216
                2007
                August 2007
                15 August 2007
                : 14
                : 1
                : 16-23
                Affiliations
                aDepartment of Virology, School of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, and bDepartment of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran
                Article
                107284 Neuroimmunomodulation 2007;14:16–23
                10.1159/000107284
                17700036
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 6, Tables: 2, References: 31, Pages: 8
                Categories
                Original Paper

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