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      Tumor Cell Marker PVRL4 (Nectin 4) Is an Epithelial Cell Receptor for Measles Virus

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          Vaccine and laboratory adapted strains of measles virus can use CD46 as a receptor to infect many human cell lines. However, wild type isolates of measles virus cannot use CD46, and they infect activated lymphocytes, dendritic cells, and macrophages via the receptor CD150/SLAM. Wild type virus can also infect epithelial cells of the respiratory tract through an unidentified receptor. We demonstrate that wild type measles virus infects primary airway epithelial cells grown in fetal calf serum and many adenocarcinoma cell lines of the lung, breast, and colon. Transfection of non-infectable adenocarcinoma cell lines with an expression vector encoding CD150/SLAM rendered them susceptible to measles virus, indicating that they were virus replication competent, but lacked a receptor for virus attachment and entry. Microarray analysis of susceptible versus non-susceptible cell lines was performed, and comparison of membrane protein gene transcripts produced a list of 11 candidate receptors. Of these, only the human tumor cell marker PVRL4 (Nectin 4) rendered cells amenable to measles virus infections. Flow cytometry confirmed that PVRL4 is highly expressed on the surfaces of susceptible lung, breast, and colon adenocarcinoma cell lines. Measles virus preferentially infected adenocarcinoma cell lines from the apical surface, although basolateral infection was observed with reduced kinetics. Confocal immune fluorescence microscopy and surface biotinylation experiments revealed that PVRL4 was expressed on both the apical and basolateral surfaces of these cell lines. Antibodies and siRNA directed against PVRL4 were able to block measles virus infections in MCF7 and NCI-H358 cancer cells. A virus binding assay indicated that PVRL4 was a bona fide receptor that supported virus attachment to the host cell. Several strains of measles virus were also shown to use PVRL4 as a receptor. Measles virus infection reduced PVRL4 surface expression in MCF7 cells, a property that is characteristic of receptor-associated viral infections.

          Author Summary

          Measles virus is a primate-specific virus that causes acute respiratory disease and can also lead to short term immune suppression resulting in secondary infections by bacteria or parasites. Wild type measles virus attaches to and infects lymphocytes using the receptor CD150 (signaling lymphocyte activation molecule, SLAM). Measles virus is also known to infect epithelial cells of the upper respiratory system and lungs. However, the viral receptor on these cells was previously unknown. Adenocarcinomas are derived from glandular epithelial cells of organs including the lung, breast, or colon. We showed that wild type isolates of measles virus can infect human airway epithelial cells and many adenocarcinoma cell lines. A comparative analysis of membrane genes expressed in cells susceptible and non-susceptible for measles virus infections revealed candidate receptor proteins. Only PVRL4 (Nectin 4) converted cells that were resistant to measles viral infections, to cells that could support virus infections. PVRL4 is a tumor cell marker that is highly expressed on embryonic cells such as those of the placenta, but it is also expressed at lower levels in the trachea, oral mucosa, nasopharynx, and lungs. It is highly expressed on many lung, breast, colon, and ovarian tumors suggesting that they could be targeted with oncolytic measles virus.

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          Most cited references 71

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          Human occludin is a hepatitis C virus entry factor required for infection of mouse cells

          Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a leading cause of liver disease worldwide. The development of much needed specific antiviral therapies and an effective vaccine has been hampered by the lack of a convenient small animal model. The determinants restricting HCV tropism to human and chimpanzee hosts are unknown. Replication of the viral RNA has been demonstrated in mouse cells1,2, but these cells are not infectable with either lentiviral particles bearing HCV glycoproteins (HCVpp)3 or HCV produced in cell culture (HCVcc)(unpublished data), suggesting a block at the level of entry. Through an iterative cDNA library screening approach we have identified human occludin (OCLN) as an essential HCV cell entry factor that is able to render murine cells infectable with HCVpp. Similarly, OCLN is required for HCV-susceptibility of human cells, since its overexpression in uninfectable cells specifically enhanced HCVpp uptake while its silencing in permissive cells impaired both HCVpp and HCVcc infection. In addition to OCLN, HCVpp infection of murine cells required expression of the previously identified HCV entry factors, CD814, scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI)5, and claudin-1 (CLDN1)6. While the mouse versions of SR-BI and CLDN1 function at least as well as the human proteins for promoting HCV entry; both OCLN and CD81, however, must be of human origin to allow efficient infection. The species-specific determinants of OCLN were mapped to its second extracellular loop. The identification of OCLN as a new HCV entry factor further highlights the importance of the tight junction complex in the viral entry process and provides a major advance towards efforts to develop small animal models for HCV.
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            Cellular receptor for poliovirus: molecular cloning, nucleotide sequence, and expression of a new member of the immunoglobulin superfamily.

            Restriction of poliovirus replication to a few sites in the infected primate host appears to be controlled by the expression of viral receptors. To learn more about these binding sites and their role in viral tissue tropism, cDNA clones encoding functional poliovirus receptors were isolated. The predicted amino acid sequence reveals that the human poliovirus receptor is an integral membrane protein with the conserved amino acids and domain structure characteristic of members of the immunoglobulin superfamily. Northern hybridization analysis indicates that poliovirus receptor transcripts are expressed in a wide range of human tissues, in contrast to the limited expression of virus binding sites, which suggests that additional factors or modifications of the receptor protein are required to permit poliovirus attachment.
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              Junction adhesion molecule is a receptor for reovirus.

              Virus attachment to cells plays an essential role in viral tropism and disease. Reovirus serotypes 1 and 3 differ in the capacity to target distinct cell types in the murine nervous system and in the efficiency to induce apoptosis. The binding of viral attachment protein sigma1 to unidentified receptors controls these phenotypes. We used expression cloning to identify junction adhesion molecule (JAM), an integral tight junction protein, as a reovirus receptor. JAM binds directly to sigma1 and permits reovirus infection of nonpermissive cells. Ligation of JAM is required for reovirus-induced activation of NF-kappaB and apoptosis. Thus, reovirus interaction with cell-surface receptors is a critical determinant of both cell-type specific tropism and virus-induced intracellular signaling events that culminate in cell death.

                Author and article information

                Role: Editor
                PLoS Pathog
                PLoS Pathogens
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, USA )
                August 2011
                August 2011
                25 August 2011
                : 7
                : 8
                [1 ]Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
                [2 ]IWK Health Sciences Centre, Canadian Center for Vaccinology, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
                [3 ]Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada
                [4 ]Ontario Cancer Institute and Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, Canada
                [5 ]Department of Pediatrics, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
                The Fox Chase Cancer Center, United States of America
                Author notes

                Conceived and designed the experiments: RSN DGB CDR. Performed the experiments: RSN DGB GS CDR. Analyzed the data: RSN DGB LTL CDR. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: MNH LTL MST. Wrote the paper: RSN CDR.

                Noyce et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
                Page count
                Pages: 24
                Research Article
                Viral Classification
                RNA viruses
                Viral Transmission and Infection
                Applied Microbiology
                Medical Microbiology
                Vector Biology
                Molecular Cell Biology
                Cell Adhesion
                Membranes and Sorting
                Infectious Diseases
                Cancer Prevention
                Cancer Vaccines

                Infectious disease & Microbiology


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