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      Screening for Pax8 Mutations in Patients with Congenital Hypothyroidism in South-West Germany

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          Abstract

          Aims: To study the frequency of mutations in the Pax8 gene in a cohort of patients with congenital hypothyroidism (CH) in South West Germany. Methods: A cohort of 95 patients with CH (60 females, 35 males), identified in our newborn screening program, was analyzed for mutations in Pax8 by single-stranded conformational polymorphism (SSCP) and DNA sequencing. Results: SSCP analysis and direct sequencing of exon 3 of a female patient with a hypoplastic thyroid gland revealed two heterozygous mutations in Pax8 resulting in a transition of T to C (codon 34) and G to A (codon 35), replacing isoleucine by threonine and valine by isoleucine. Using allele-specific PCR we could demonstrate that both mutations are located on the same allele. Furthermore, a polymorphism was documented in 24 patients with thyroid hypoplasia in intron 6 at nucleotide +51 (CC, GG, CG). Comparison of the polymorphisms between hypothyroid patients and controls revealed no significant differences suggesting that this polymorphism does not play a role in the pathogenesis of hypothyroidism. No further mutations or polymorphisms were found in the cohort. Conclusions: These findings confirm the contribution of mutations in the Pax8 gene to the etiology of thyroid dysgenesis with a variable penetrance, but also demonstrate the rare overall incidence in CH.

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          Most cited references 18

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          Genetics of congenital hypothyroidism.

          Congenital hypothyroidism is the most common neonatal metabolic disorder and results in severe neurodevelopmental impairment and infertility if untreated. Congenital hypothyroidism is usually sporadic but up to 2% of thyroid dysgenesis is familial, and congenital hypothyroidism caused by organification defects is often recessively inherited. The candidate genes associated with this genetically heterogeneous disorder form two main groups: those causing thyroid gland dysgenesis and those causing dyshormonogenesis. Genes associated with thyroid gland dysgenesis include the TSH receptor in non-syndromic congenital hypothyroidism, and Gsalpha and the thyroid transcription factors (TTF-1, TTF-2, and Pax-8), associated with different complex syndromes that include congenital hypothyroidism. Among those causing dyshormonogenesis, the thyroid peroxidase and thyroglobulin genes were initially described, and more recently PDS (Pendred syndrome), NIS (sodium iodide symporter), and THOX2 (thyroid oxidase 2) gene defects. There is also early evidence for a third group of congenital hypothyroid conditions associated with iodothyronine transporter defects associated with severe neurological sequelae. This review focuses on the genetic aspects of primary congenital hypothyroidism.
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            PAX8 mutations associated with congenital hypothyroidism caused by thyroid dysgenesis.

            Permanent congenital hypothyroidism (CH) is a common disease that occurs in 1 of 3,000-4,000 newborns. Except in rare cases due to hypothalamic or pituitary defects, CH is characterized by elevated levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) resulting from reduced thyroid function. When thyroid hormone therapy is not initiated within the first two months of life, CH can cause severe neurological, mental and motor damage. In 80-85% of cases, CH is associated with and presumably is a consequence of thyroid dysgenesis (TD). In these cases, the thyroid gland can be absent (agenesis, 35-40%), ectopically located (30-45%) and/or severely reduced in size (hypoplasia, 5%). Familial cases of TD are rare, even though ectopic or absent thyroid has been occasionally observed in siblings. The pathogenesis of TD is still largely unknown. Although a genetic component has been suggested, mutations in the gene encoding the receptor for the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSHR) have been identified in only two cases of TD with hypoplasia. We report mutations in the coding region of PAX8 in two sporadic patients and one familial case of TD. All three point mutations are located in the paired domain of PAX8 and result in severe reduction of the DNA-binding activity of this transcription factor. These genetic alterations implicate PAX8 in the pathogenesis of TD and in normal thyroid development.
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              Crystal structure of a paired domain-DNA complex at 2.5 A resolution reveals structural basis for Pax developmental mutations.

              The 2.5 A resolution structure of a cocrystal containing the paired domain from the Drosophila paired (prd) protein and a 15 bp site shows structurally independent N-terminal and C-terminal subdomains. Each of these domains contains a helical region resembling the homeodomain and the Hin recombinase. The N-terminal domain makes extensive DNA contacts, using a novel beta turn motif that binds in the minor groove and a helix-turn-helix unit with a docking arrangement surprisingly similar to that of the lambda repressor. The C-terminal domain is not essential for prd binding and does not contact the optimized site. All known developmental missense mutations in the paired box of mammalian Pax genes map to the N-terminal subdomain, and most of them are found at the protein-DNA interface.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                HRE
                Horm Res Paediatr
                10.1159/issn.1663-2818
                Hormone Research in Paediatrics
                S. Karger AG
                1663-2818
                1663-2826
                2006
                July 2006
                26 July 2006
                : 66
                : 2
                : 96-100
                Affiliations
                aDivision of Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Heidelberg, and bLaboratory for Molecular Genetics, Endocrine Practice, Heidelberg, Germany
                Article
                93799 Horm Res 2006;66:96–100
                10.1159/000093799
                16763387
                © 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 2, References: 19, Pages: 5
                Categories
                Original Paper

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