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      Inhibition of Restenosis Development after Mechanical Injury: A New Field of Application for Malononitrilamides?

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          Abstract

          Objective: To investigate the efficacy of the malononitrilamide FK778 to prevent vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) migration/proliferation, and vascular fibrosis, the key events in restenosis development using in vivo and in vitro studies. Background: Since the high rate of restenosis after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty limited its long-term success, the implementation of locally delivered antiproliferative/immunosuppressive agents became advantageous. Methods: Rats underwent balloon denudation of the abdominal aorta and received sirolimus, tacrolimus, or FK778 for 28 days in varying doses. Aortas were harvested for histologic evaluation, profibrotic gene expression, and organ chamber studies. Antifibrotic, antiproliferative and antimigratory effects of the immunosuppressants were further evaluated in vitro. Results: Histology of untreated animals revealed marked intimal hyperplasia with moderate luminal obliteration. Neointima formation was dose-dependently attenuated by all three agents with FK778 and sirolimus being most efficacious. Organ chamber relaxation studies showed a leftward shift of the nitroglycerin and the acetylcholine dose-responses in all treatment groups, indicating diminished endothelial dysfunction. In vivo, only FK778 treatment revealed a significant downregulation of the TGF-β/vasorin system which could be explained by upregulation of the TGF-β-inhibitory mediator SMAD7. In vitro, FK778 showed most potent antiproliferative and antimigratory effects on SMC compared with sirolimus and tacrolimus. Only the antiproliferative effect of FK778 was due to pyrimidine synthesis blockade and could be reversed by uridine supplementation. Conclusions: The malononitrilamide FK778 proved highly efficacious against restenosis development by targeting two major components of intimal hyperplasia: SMC proliferation/migration and vascular fibrosis. Thus, the introduction of malononitrilamide-loaded stents may be a promising effort for future strategies.

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          Most cited references 18

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          Mechanisms of TGF-β Signaling from Cell Membrane to the Nucleus

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            In-Stent Restenosis: Contributions of Inflammatory Responses and Arterial Injury to Neointimal Hyperplasia

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              Expression of transforming growth factor-beta 1 is increased in human vascular restenosis lesions.

              Human atheromata obtained in vivo were used to test the hypothesis that transforming growth factor-beta 1 plays a role in the development of vascular restenosis. We analyzed 28 specimens from patients with primary atherosclerotic or restenotic lesions; 26 of these were obtained by directional atherectomy and 2 at the time of coronary bypass surgery. Seven control tissues included operatively excised segments of human internal mammary artery, myocardium, and unused portions of vein graft obtained intraoperatively. From these 35 specimens, 210 sections were examined using in situ hybridization. Measurement of silver grains/nucleus disclosed that expression of transforming growth factor-beta 1 mRNA was highest in restenotic tissues (P < 0.001 vs. primary atherosclerotic tissues) and lowest in nonatherosclerotic (control) tissues. In cultures of human vascular smooth muscle cells grown from explants of internal mammary artery, expression of mRNA for transforming growth factor-beta 1 was significantly greater in subconfluent than in confluent smooth muscle cells (P = 0.05). Transforming growth factor type-beta III receptor was expressed in cell cultures and undetectable in the tissue specimens. Sections taken adjacent to those studied by in situ hybridization were examined by immunohistochemistry using antibodies against transforming growth factor-beta 1 and alpha-actin (as a marker for smooth muscle cells) and disclosed transforming growth factor-beta 1 in smooth muscle cells present in these sections. These findings are consistent with the concept that transforming growth factor-beta 1 plays an important role in modulating repair of vascular injury, including restenosis, after balloon angioplasty.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                CRD
                Cardiology
                10.1159/issn.0008-6312
                Cardiology
                S. Karger AG
                0008-6312
                1421-9751
                2007
                August 2007
                06 October 2006
                : 108
                : 2
                : 128-137
                Affiliations
                aCardiovascular Surgery, University Heart Center Hamburg, bInstitute of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology II, cInstitute of Clinical Chemistry, dDepartment of Pharmacology, eDepartment of Cardiology, University Heart Center Hamburg and fDepartment of Pathology, University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany; gDepartment of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, Calif., USA
                Article
                96037 Cardiology 2007;108:128–137
                10.1159/000096037
                17028423
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 6, Tables: 1, References: 30, Pages: 10
                Categories
                Original Research

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