Development of central nervous system (CNS) is regulated by both intrinsic and peripheral signals. Previous studies have suggested that environmental factors affect neurological activities under both physiological and pathological conditions. Although there is anatomical separation, emerging evidence has indicated the existence of bidirectional interaction between gut microbiota, i.e., (diverse microorganisms colonizing human intestine), and brain. The cross-talk between gut microbiota and brain may have crucial impact during basic neurogenerative processes, in neurodegenerative disorders and tumors of CNS. In this review, we discuss the biological interplay between gut-brain axis, and further explore how this communication may be dysregulated in neurological diseases. Further, we highlight new insights in modification of gut microbiota composition, which may emerge as a promising therapeutic approach to treat CNS disorders.