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      Labellum structure of Bulbophyllum echinolabium J.J. Sm. (section Lepidorhiza Schltr., Bulbophyllinae Schltr., Orchidaceae Juss.)


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          This micromorphological, chemical and ultrastructural study is a continuation of research conducted on the section Lepidorhiza. The Bulbophyllum echinolabium flowers comprised features that characterize a sapromyophilous syndrome, having large, glistening parts that emit an intense scent of rotten meat. The secretory activity was described in the hypochile (nectary in longitudinal groove and in the prickles) and the epichile (putative osmophore). The ultrastructural studies revealed a dense cytoplasm in the epidermis and subepidermal tissue with large nuclei and numerous mitochondria, the profiles of SER and RER, and dictyosomes. Large amounts of heterogeneous residues of secreted material (possibly phenolic) were present on the cuticle surface, similar to the unusual prominent periplasmic space with flocculent secretory material. The chemical analysis (GC/MS) of the scent profile of lips comprised carbohydrates and their derivatives (29.55% of all compounds), amino acids (1.66%), lipids (8.04%) and other organic compounds (60.73%). A great number of identified compounds are Diptera attractants (mainly Milichiidae, Tephritidae, Drosophilidae, Muscidae, Sarcophagidae, Tachinidae). The examination of visual and olfactory features indicates correlation between colour of flowers and the type of olfactory mimicry, where a dark colour labellum emits strong smell of rotten waste.

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            Effects of Plant Epicuticular Lipids on Insect Herbivores

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              Plant surface properties in chemical ecology.

              The surface of the primary aerial parts of terrestrial plants is covered by a cuticle, which has crucial autecological functions, but also serves as an important interface in trophic interactions. The chemical and physical properties of this layer contribute to these functions. The cuticle is composed of the cuticular layer and the cuticle proper, which is covered by epicuticular waxes. Whereas the cutin fraction is a polyester-type biopolymer composed of hydroxyl and hydroxyepoxy fatty acids, the cuticular waxes are a complex mixture of long-chain aliphatic and cyclic compounds. These highly lipophilic compounds determine the hydrophobic quality of the plant surface and, together with the microstructure of the waxes, vary in a species-specific manner. The physicochemical characteristics contribute to certain optical features, limit transpiration, and influence adhesion of particles and organisms. In chemical ecology, where interactions between organisms and the underlying (allelo-) chemical principles are studied, it is important to determine what is present at this interface between the plant and the environment. Several useful equations can allow estimation of the dissolution of a given organic molecule in the cuticle and its transport properties. The implementation of these equations is exemplified by examining glucosinolates, which play an important role in interactions of plants with other organisms. An accurate characterization of physicochemical properties of the plant surface is needed to understand its ecological significance. Here, we summarize current knowledge about the physical and chemical properties of plant cuticles and their role in interactions with microorganisms, phytophagous insects, and their antagonists.

                Author and article information

                Springer Vienna (Vienna )
                16 April 2019
                16 April 2019
                : 256
                : 5
                : 1185-1203
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2370 4076, GRID grid.8585.0, Department of Plant Cytology and Embryology, , Faculty of Biology, University of Gdańsk, ; Wita Stwosza 59, 80-308 Gdańsk, Poland
                [2 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2370 4076, GRID grid.8585.0, Department of Plant Taxonomy and Nature Conservation, , Faculty of Biology, University of Gdańsk, ; Wita Stwosza 59, 80-308 Gdańsk, Poland
                [3 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2370 4076, GRID grid.8585.0, Laboratory of Analysis of Natural Compounds, Department of Environmental Analytics, , Faculty of Chemistry, University of Gdańsk, ; Wita Stwosza 63, 80-952 Gdańsk, Poland
                Author notes

                Handling Editor: Hanns H. Kassemeyer

                Author information
                © The Author(s) 2019

                Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

                : 30 May 2018
                : 26 March 2019
                Funded by: University of Gdansk, Faculty of Biology
                Award ID: 538-L160-B268-16
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                Original Article
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                © Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2019

                Molecular biology
                histochemistry,micromorphology,ultrastructure,gc/ms,sapromyophily,fly-pollination syndrome


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