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      Review of the flower-inhabiting water scavenger beetle genus Cycreon (Coleoptera, Hydrophilidae), with descriptions of new species and comments on its biology

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      Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift

      Pensoft Publishers

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          Abstract

          The hydrophilid genus Cycreon Orchymont, 1919, previously known from two historical specimens only, is reviewed based on the numerous material collected recently from the inflorescences of various Araceae species in the Malay Peninsula and Borneo. Four species are recognized in the genus: C. sculpturatus Orchymont, 1919 from Sumatra, C. armandi Shatrovskiy, 2017 from Singapore, C. adolescens sp. n. from peninsular Malaysia, and C. floricola sp. n. with two subspecies, the nominotypical one from Peninsular Malaysia, and C. floricola borneanus subsp. n. from Borneo. All species are very similar, differing only by the pronotal punctation, shape of the clypeus and the mentum, and the form of the median lobe of the aedeagus. Specimens of C. floricola sp. n. and C. adolescens sp. n. were collected from inflorescences of various genera of the family Araceae. The field observations and analysis of mid gut contents indicates that they feed on organic material on internal organs of the inflorescences, including the pollen of the host plant. They were also observed to carry a large amount of pollen and are likely pollinators of their host species of Araceae.

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          Molecular phylogeny, evolution and classification of the Hydrophilidae (Coleoptera)

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            Clade Age and Diversification Rate Variation Explain Disparity in Species Richness among Water Scavenger Beetle (Hydrophilidae) Lineages

            Explaining the disparity of species richness across the tree of life is one of the great challenges in evolutionary biology. Some lineages are exceptionally species rich, while others are relatively species poor. One explanation for heterogeneity among clade richness is that older clades are more species rich because they have had more time to accrue diversity than younger clades. Alternatively, disparity in species richness may be due to among-lineage diversification rate variation. Here we investigate diversification in water scavenger beetles (Hydrophilidae), which vary in species richness among major lineages by as much as 20 fold. Using a time-calibrated phylogeny and comparative methods, we test for a relationship between clade age and species richness and for shifts in diversification rate in hydrophilids. We detected a single diversification rate increase in Megasternini, a relatively young and species rich clade whose diversity might be explained by the stunning diversity of ecological niches occupied by this clade. We find that Amphiopini, an old clade, is significantly more species poor than expected, possibly due to its restricted geographic range. The remaining lineages show a correlation between species richness and clade age, suggesting that both clade age and variation in diversification rates explain the disparity in species richness in hydrophilids. We find little evidence that transitions between aquatic, semiaquatic, and terrestrial habitats are linked to shifts in diversification rates.
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              REVISION OF THE SUBFAMILY SPHAERIDIINAE OF AMERICA NORTH OF MEXICO (COLEOPTERA: HYDROPHILIDAE)

               A. Smetana (1978)
              A revision of the hydrophilid subfamily Sphaeridiinae (Coleoptera) is presented including a historical review, a discussion of diagnostic characters and techniques, and some conclusive remarks, mostly on the zoogeography of this group in North America.Thirteen genera and 62 species are recognized. Three genera, one subgenus, 12 species, and one subspecies are described as new. Sphaeridiolinus Menozzi, 1921, is placed in synonymy with Sphaeridium Fabricius, 1775; Ercycon Rey, 1885, and Paraliocercyon Ganglbauer, 1904, are placed in synonymy with Cercyon Leach, 1817. On the specific level, Phaenonotum dubium Sharp, 1882, is placed in synonymy with Ph . exstriatum (Say, 1837); Sphaeridium quadrimaculatum Herbst, 1783, marginatum Fabricius, 1787, daltoni Stephens, 1829, semistriatum Laporte, 1840, testaceum Heer, 1841, humerale Westhoff, 1881, nigrum Csiki, 1953, and pulchrum Csiki, 1953, with S . bipustulatum Fabricius, 1781; Sphaeridium striolatum Heer, 1841, pictum Ménétries, 1832, marginatum Normand, 1933, nigerrimum Reitter, 1909, inhumerale Csiki, 1953, and confluens EndrÖdy-Younga, 1967, with S . scarabaeoides (Linné, 1758); Cercyon testaceus Blatchley, 1923, with C . praetextatus (Say, 1825); Cercyon fulvipennis Mannerheim, 1852, with C . limbatus Mannerheim, 1843; Cercyon mulsanti Ganglbauer, 1904, with C . quisquilius (Linné, 1761); Cercyon impunctatus Kuwert, 1890, and janssoni Nyholm, 1952, with C . unipunctatus (Linné, 1758); Cercyon incrematus Notman, 1920, with C . lateralis (Marsham, 1802); Cercyon erythropterus Mulsant, 1840, discoidalis J. Sahlberg, 1913, basillaris Notman, 1920, and bifenestratellus EndrÖdy-Younga, 1967, with C . haemorrhoidalis (Fabricius, 1775); Cercyon rufipennis Csiki, 1953, with C . impressus (Sturm, 1807); Cercyon rubripennis Kuwert, 1890, with C . melanocephalus (Linné, 1758); Cercyon separandus Rey, 1885, and pictithorax Gridelli, 1926, with C . terminants (Marsham, 1802); Cercyon binotatus Stephens, 1829, and ruficollis Schilsky, 1888, with C . litoralis (Gyllenhal, 1808); Cercyon falli Winters, 1944 (nomen nudum), with C . analis (Paykull, 1798); Cybocephalus unicolor Motschulsky, 1845, with Cercyon adumbratus Mannerheim, 1843; Cryptopleurum cerei Schwarz, 1899, with C . impressum Sharp, 1882.Neotypes are designated for Cercyon praetextatus (Say), C . occallatus (Say), and C . minusculus Melsh. Lectotypes are designated for Dactylosternum advectum Horn, D . cacti (LeC.), Oosternum costatum Sharp, Cercyon roseni Knisch, C . opacellus Fall, C . pubescens LeC., C . kulzeri Knisch, C . nevadanus Knisch, C . floridanus Horn, C . testaceus Blatch., C . limbatus Mannh., C . fulvipennis Mannh., C . variegatus Sharp, C . indistinctus Horn, C . adumbratus Mannh., C . fimbriatus Mannh., C . luniger Mannh., C . maculatus Melsh., Genyon navicularis (Zimm.), Megasternum posticatum Mannh., Cryptopleurum impressum Sharp, C . cerei Schw., and C . subtile Sharp.Keys to tribes, genera, and species are provided. The tribes and genera are described; each species is described and illustrated, and all available bionomic and distributional data are presented; distributional records are mapped.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift
                DEZ
                Pensoft Publishers
                1860-1324
                1435-1951
                June 12 2018
                June 12 2018
                : 65
                : 1
                : 99-115
                Article
                10.3897/dez.65.26261
                © 2018

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